Flashcards in Communications - Exam 3 Prep Deck (79):
What are the 5 characteristics of culture?
1. Is Learned
2. Is Inherently Logical
3. Forms Our Self-Identity and Community
4. Combines Visible and Invisible
5. Is Dynamic
What are the 5 dimensions of culture?
4. Communication Style
5. Time Orientation
What are low context cultures?
Tend to be logical, linear, and action oriented.
North America, Germany, Scandinavia
What are high context cultures?
Tend to be relational, collectivist, intuitive, and contemplative.
What culture prefer group values, duties and decisions?
High context cultures
What culture prefer individual initiative, self-assertion, and personal achievement?
Low context cultures
Which culture prefer greater formality in dress, speech, and social interaction?
Some do like Japan, but North Americans place less emphasis on tradition, ceremony and social rules
Which culture rely on nonverbal cues and the total picture to communicate?
Which culture emphasize words, directness, and openness?
Which culture tends to be informal, impatient, and literal?
Which culture has meanings are embedded at many sociocultural levels?
Which culture values time?
North Americans correlates time with productivity, efficiency, and money
Which culture sees time as unlimited and never ending?
South Americans have more relaxed concept of time
What is the order of high to low context cultures?
1. Japanese (high context)
3. Latin American
8. North American
11. Swiss (low context)
What are 5 ways to improve ORAL communication with intercultural audiences?
1. Learn foreign phrases.
2. Use simple English – avoid two-word verbs.
3. Speak slowly and enunciate clearly.
4. Observe eye messages.
5. Encourage accurate feedback.
What are 5 MORE ways to improve ORAL communication with intercultural audiences?
6. Check frequently for comprehension.
7. Accept blame.
8. Listen without interrupting.
9. Smile when appropriate.
10. Follow up in writing.
What are 4 ways to improve WRITTEN communication with intercultural audiences?
1. Consider local styles.
2. Observe titles and rank.
3. Use short sentences and short paragraphs.
4. Avoid ambiguous expressions.
What are 4 MORE ways to improve WRITTEN communication with intercultural audiences?
5. Strive for clarity.
6. Use correct grammar.
7. Cite numbers carefully.
8. Accommodate readers in organization, tone, and style.
What are 3 purposes of reports?
1. Convey information
2. Solve problems
3. Answer questions
What are 2 report functions and types?
1. Informational reports
2. Analytical reports
What are 2 organizational strategies?
1. Direct strategy
2. Indirect strategy
What are 2 writing styles?
What 5 report formats?
2. Memo (often with email cover note)
4. Preprinted forms
When do you use direct pattern?
1. If readers are informed
2. If readers are supportive
3. If readers are eager to have results first
When do you use indirect pattern?
1. If readers to be educated
2. If readers need to be persuaded
3. If readers may be disappointed or hostile
What are 2 print secondary sources?
1. Books – card catalog, online catalog
2. Periodicals – print indexes, electronic indexes
What are 3 primary sources?
1. Surveys (for example, low-cost Web survey software, such as SurveyMonkey and Zoomerang)
3. Observation and experimentation
How do you cite with MLA?
1. Author’s name and page (Smith 100) placed in text
2. Complete references in Works Cited
How do you cite with APA?
1. Author’s name, date of publication, and page number placed near the text reference (Jones, 2011, p. 99)
2. Complete references listed at the end of the report in References
What are the 4 functions of graphics visual aids?
1. Clarify data
2. Create visual interest
3. Condense and simplify data
4. Make numerical data meaningful
What are the 7 steps for writing process for Reports?
1. Analyze the problem and purpose
2. Anticipate the audience and issues
3. Prepare a work plan
4. Conduct research
5. Organize, analyze, interpret, and illustrate the data
6. Compose the first draft
7. Revise, proofread, and evaluate
What are components in a formal proposals?
2. Background, Problems, Purpose
What components are optional in informal proposal, but generally appear in formal proposal?
1. Copy of RFP
2. Letter of transmittal
3. Abstract or Summary
4. Title Page
5. Table of contents
6. List of figures
How do you analyze the report problem and purpose in Formal Reports?
Devlop a problem question and purpose statement
Ex: Are customers satisfied with our service?
The purpose of this report is to investigate customer satisfaction and to recommend areas for improvement
How do you anticipate the audience and issues in Formal Reports?
1. Consider primary and secondary audiences. What do they already know? What do they need to know?
2. Divide the major problem into subproblems for investigation.
How do you prepare a work plan in Formal Reports?
1. Include problem and purpose statements.
2. Describe sources and methods of data collection.
3. Prepare a project outline and work schedule.
How do you collect data in Formal Reports?
1. Search secondary sources.
2. Gather primary data.
How do you document data sources in Formal Reports?
Prepare note cards or printouts citing all references (author, date, source, page, and quotation). Use one documentation format consistently.
How do you interpret and organize the data in Formal Reports?
1. Arrange the collected data in tables, grids, or outlines to help you visualize relationships and interpret meanings.
2. Organize the data into an outline.
How do you prepare graphics in Formal Reports?
Make tables, charts, and illustrations – but only if they serve a function. Use graphics to clarify, condense, simplify, or emphasize your data.
How do you compose the first draft in Formal Reports?
1. Write the first draft knowing that you will revise it later.
2, Use appropriate headings and transitional expressions to guide the reader.
How do you revise and proofread Formal Reports?
Revise to eliminate wordiness, ambiguity, and redundancy. Look for ways to improve readability, such as bulleted or numbered lists. Proofread three times for (1) word and content meaning, (2) grammar and mechanics, and (3) formatting.
How do you evaluate the product in Formal Reports?
Decide whether the report will achieve its purpose. Encourage feedback so that you can improve future reports.
How do you Know your purpose in Oral Presentations?
1. Decide what you want your audience to believe, remember, or do when you finish.
2. Aim all parts of your talk toward your purpose.
Know your purpose.
How do you Know your audience in Oral Presentations?
1. Analyze the age, gender, education, experience, knowledge, and size of your audience.
2. Decide what organizational pattern, delivery style, and supporting material will work best.
How do you Organize the introduction in Oral Presentations?
1. Capture attention with a promise, startling fact, question, quotation, problem, or story.
2. Establish your credibility by identifying your position, expertise, knowledge, or qualifications.
3. Preview your main points
How do you Organize the body of your Oral presentation?
1. Develop two to four main points.
2. Streamline your topic and summarize its principal parts.
3. Arrange by one or more of the methods in this chapter.
How do organize the conclusion of oral presentation?
1. Summarize your main themes.
2. Leave the audience with a specific and memorable “takeaway.” Tell how listeners can use this information, why you have spoken, or what you want them to do.
3. Include a statement that allows you to leave the podium gracefully.
Give an example of Chronology organizational pattern.
Example: Describe the history of a problem, organized from the first sign of trouble to the present.
Give an example of Geography/space.
Example: Arrange a discussion of the changing demographics of the workforce by regions, such as East Coast, West Coast, and so on.
Give an example of Topic/function/conventional grouping.
Example: Organize a report discussing mishandled airline baggage by the names of airlines.
Give an example of Value/size.
Example: Arrange a report describing fluctuations in housing costs by house value groups (houses that cost $100,000, $200,000, and so on).
Give an example of Journalism pattern.
Example: Explain how identity thieves ruin your good name by discussing who, what, when, where, why, and how.
Give an example of simple/complex.
Example: Organize a report explaining genetic modification of plants by discussing simple seed production, progressing to complex gene introduction.
Give an example of Importance.
Example: Organize from most important to least important the reasons a company should move its headquarters to a specific city.
Give an example of Problem/solution.
Example: Discuss a problem and then discuss its possible solutions.
Give an example of Best case/worst case.
Example: Analyze whether two companies should merge by presenting the best-case result (e.g., improved market share) and worst-case result (e.g., devalued stock).
Give an example of Comparison/contrast (pro/con).
Example: Compare organic farming methods with those of modern industrial farming.
What are 3 verbal signposts?
3. Switching directions
What are examples of Previewing?
- "Now we will consider the opposite view."
- "Next I'm going to discuss . . . ."
What are examples of Summarizing?
- "You see, then, that the most important elements are . . ."
- "Let me review the major problems I have presented . . . ."
What are examples of Switching directions?
- "Up to this point, I have talked only about . . . ; now let's look at . . . ."
- "Those are all good reasons to support the proposal. But let's also consider the negatives."
What are 6 Nonverbal messages?
1. Look terrific!
2. Animate your body.
3. Speak extemporaneously.
4. Punctuate your words.
5. Get out from behind the podium.
6. Vary your facial expression.
What are 8 ways to polish your delivery and following up BEFORE the presentation?
1. Choose a delivery method.
2. Prepare thoroughly.
3. Rehearse repeatedly.
4. Time yourself.
5. Check the room.
6. Greet members of the audience.
7. Practice stress reduction.
8. Focus on converting fear into excitement.
What are 6 ways to polish your delivery and following up DURING the presentation?
1. Begin with a pause.
2. Present your first sentence from memory.
3. Maintain eye contact.
4. Control your voice and vocabulary.
5. Skip the apologies.
6. Incorporate pauses when appropriate.
What are 4 more ways to polish your delivery and following up DURING the presentation?
7. Move naturally.
8. Use visual aids effectively.
9. Avoid digressions.
10. Summarize your main points and arrive at the high point of your talk.
What are 7 ways to polish your delivery and following up AFTER the presentation?
1. Distribute handouts.
2. Encourage questions.
3. Repeat questions.
4. Reinforce your main points.
5. Keep control.
6. Avoid Yes, but answers.
7. End with a summary and appreciation.
Before an interview, what are 3 steps to research the target company?
1. Know the leaders, company products, finances, goals, competition, accomplishments, setbacks.
2. Interview employees, if possible. Consult relevant blogs.
3. Join the company’s Facebook page, and start following the company on Twitter.
Before an interview, what are 4 steps to prepare and practice?
1. Study the job description. How do your skills and accomplishments fit the position?
2. Practice answers to typical interview questions. Make your best responses automatic.
3. Rehearse success stories.
4. Prepare thoroughly.
Before an interview, what are 6 steps to prepare and practice?
1. Record a practice session.
2. Clean up any digital dirt.
3. Expect to explain problem areas on your résumé.
4. Decide how to dress professionally.
5. Cover tattoos and conceal body piercings.
6. Gather what you will bring with you.
During an interview, what are 4 nonverbal messages?
1. Control your body movements.
2. Exhibit good posture.
3. Make frequent eye contact but don’t get into a staring contest.
4. Use gestures effectively.
During an interview, what are 3 ways to fight fear?
1. Practice interviewing as much as you can, particularly with real companies.
2. Know how you will answer the most frequently asked questions.
3. Be ready with your success stories.
During an interview, what are 3 MORE ways to fight fear?
1. Take deep breaths, particularly before the interview.
2. Know that you are not alone. Everyone feels anxiety during a job interview.
3. Remember that interviewing is a two-way street. You are evaluating the interviewer and his or her organization. This thought should give you confidence.
During an interview, what 4 ways to act like a professional?
1. Answer questions confidently.
2. Clarify vague questions: By ___, do you mean ___?
3. Focus on your strengths; do not reveal weaknesses.
4. Use correct English and enunciate clearly.
When closing an interview, what 5 questions to ask the interviewer?
1. What will my duties be?
2. What is it like working here, in terms of the people, management practices, workloads, expected performance, and rewards?
3. What training programs does this organization offer?
4. Who would be my immediate supervisor?
5. What is the organizational structure, and where does this position fit in?
What are 3 steps to end the interview positively?
1. After his or her reply, say, "If I don’t hear from you by then, may I call you?"
2. Thank the interviewer.
3. Say goodbye to the receptionist.
After the interview what 2 things to do?
1. Make notes on the interview as soon as you leave.
2. Alert your references that they might receive a call.
After the interview what 2 things to do later?
3. Write a thank-you letter to the interviewer. Remind the interviewer of your visit. Show that you really want the job and that you are qualified for it.
4. Call if you don’t hear from the interviewer within the specified time.