Communications - Chapter 13 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Communications - Chapter 13 Deck (39):

What are components in a formal proposals?

1. Introduction
2. Background, Problems, Purpose
3. Schedule
4. Staffing
5. Budget
6. Authorization


What components are optional in informal proposal, but generally appear in formal proposal?

1. Copy of RFP
2. Letter of transmittal
3. Abstract or Summary
4. Title Page
5. Table of contents
6. List of figures
7. Appendix


What is in the introduction of a proposal?

1. Explain why the proposal is being made.
2. Develop a persuasive “hook,” such as (a) extraordinary results; (b) low costs or speedy results; (c) an exclusive, remarkable resource; (d) a serious problem and a promise of a solution later; or (e) a key issue or benefit that represents the heart of the proposal.


What do you do for unsolicited proposals?

For unsolicited proposals, describe an existing problem.


What do you do for solicited proposals?

For solicited proposals, show that you fully understand the problem and its ramifications.


What is in Proposal, Plan, Schedule?

1. Present your plan for solving the problem.
2. Describe implementation and evaluation.
3. Outline a schedule showing dates.


What is in Staffing?

1. Explain the specific credentials and expertise of the key personnel for the project.
2. Show how your support staff and resources are superior.


What is in the Budget, Authorization of a proposal?

1. Itemize costs carefully.
2. Proposals are contracts.
Present a deadline for the bid figures.
3. Ask for approval, and make it easy to reply.


What in the letter transmittal or executive summary of a business plans?

1. Explain your reason for writing.
2. Provide contact information for all principals.
3. Describe your business concisely.
4. Introduce parts of your plan.
5. Ask for support.


What is in table of contents?

List topics and page numbers.


How do you describe the company in the business plan?

1. Identify business form (proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and so on)
2. Specify business type (merchandising, service?)
3. For existing businesses, explain founding, growth, sales, and profit.


How do you describe Product or service in a business plan?

1. Explain what you are providing and how it will benefit customers.
2. Describe why your idea is better than existing products or services.


How do you do a market analysis in a business plan?

1. Discuss market characteristics, trends, and projected growth.
2. Describe customer behavior, complementary products and services, and barriers to entry.
3. Identify your customers and how you will attract, hold, and increase your market share.
4. Specify the strengths and weaknesses of competitors.


How do you explain Operations and management in a business plan?

1. Explain how you will run your business: location, equipment, personnel, and management.
2. Emphasize experienced and well-trained staff and advisors.


How do you do Financial analysis in a business plan?

1. Outline a realistic start-up budget.
2. Present an operating budget that projects costs.
3. Explain how much money you have and will need.


What goes in the Appendixes of a business plan?

Provide extras, such as managers’ résumés, promotional materials, and product photos.


What is in this chapter?

1. Preparing Proposals
2. Preparing effective business plans
3. Preparing Formal Reports
4. Preparing Report components


How do you analyze the report problem and purpose in Formal Reports?

Devlop a problem question and purpose statement

Ex: Are customers satisfied with our service?
The purpose of this report is to investigate customer satisfaction and to recommend areas for improvement


How do you anticipate the audience and issues in Formal Reports?

1. Consider primary and secondary audiences. What do they already know? What do they need to know?
2. Divide the major problem into subproblems for investigation.


How do you prepare a work plan in Formal Reports?

1. Include problem and purpose statements.
2. Describe sources and methods of data collection.
3. Prepare a project outline and work schedule.


How do you collect data in Formal Reports?

1. Search secondary sources.
2. Gather primary data.


How do you document data sources in Formal Reports?

Prepare note cards or printouts citing all references (author, date, source, page, and quotation). Use one documentation format consistently.


How do you interpret and organize the data in Formal Reports?

1. Arrange the collected data in tables, grids, or outlines to help you visualize relationships and interpret meanings.
2. Organize the data into an outline.


How do you prepare graphics in Formal Reports?

Make tables, charts, and illustrations – but only if they serve a function. Use graphics to clarify, condense, simplify, or emphasize your data.


How do you compose the first draft in Formal Reports?

1. Write the first draft knowing that you will revise it later.
2, Use appropriate headings and transitional expressions to guide the reader.


How do you revise and proofread Formal Reports?

Revise to eliminate wordiness, ambiguity, and redundancy. Look for ways to improve readability, such as bulleted or numbered lists. Proofread three times for (1) word and content meaning, (2) grammar and mechanics, and (3) formatting.


How do you evaluate the product in Formal Reports?

Decide whether the report will achieve its purpose. Encourage feedback so that you can improve future reports.


Formal report components: Front Matter
What goes in the cover and title page?

1. Choose a professional binder or cover.
2. Balance the following parts on the title page:
a. Name of report in all caps
b. Receiver’s name, title, and organization
c. Author’s name, title, and organization
d. Date submitted


Formal report components: Front Matter
What goes in the letter or memo of transmittal

1. Announce the topic and explain who authorized it.
2. Briefly describe the project and preview the conclusions – if the reader is supportive.
3. Close by expressing appreciation for the assignment, suggesting follow-up actions, acknowledging the help of others, and offering to answer questions.


Formal report components: Front Matter
What goes in the Table of contents?

Show the beginning page number where each report heading appears in the report.


Formal report components: Front Matter
What goes in the List of figures?

1. Include a list of tables, illustrations, or figures showing the title of each and its page number.
2. Place the list of figures on the same page with the table of contents if possible.


Formal report components: Front Matter
What goes in the Executive summary?

1. Summarize the report purpose, findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
2. Include strategic words and sentences.
3. Prepare an outline with headings.
4. Fill in your outline.


Formal report components: Front Matter
What else goes in the Executive summary?

5. Begin with the purpose.
6. Follow the report sequence.
7. Eliminate nonessential details.
8. Restrict the length to no more than 10 percent of the original document.


Formal report components: Front Matter
What goes in the Introduction?

1. Describe events leading to the problem or need.
2. Explain the report topic and why it is important.
3. Clarify the scope and limitations of the report.
4. Orient readers with a preview of the report structure.


Formal report components: Front Matter
What else goes in the Introduction?

1. Identify who authorized the report.
2. Consider reviewing relevant literature.
3. Describe secondary and primary data sources.
4. Define key terms.


Formal report components: Body
What goes in the body?

1. Discuss, analyze, and interpret the research findings or proposed solution to the problem.
2. Arrange the findings in logical segments that follow your outline.
3. Use clear, descriptive headings.


Formal report components: Back Matter
What goes in the the conclusion and recommendations?

1. Explain what the findings mean in relation to the problem.
2. Make enumerated recommendations, if requested.
3. Suggest actions for solving the problem.


Formal report components: Back Matter
What goes in the Appendix?

Include items of interest to some readers, such as data-gathering tools like questionnaires.


Formal report components: Back Matter
What goes in the Works Cited or References?

1. List all references in “Works Cited” or “References” if footnotes are not provided.
2. Optionally, include a bibliography showing all the works cited (and perhaps consulted), arranged alphabetically.