Flashcards in Congential Heart Disease Deck (92)
How common is congenital heart disease?
Common Incidence of 6-8 per 1000 births
What is the most common type of congenital heart defect?
Ventricular septal defects
What is the second most common type of congenital heart disease?
Atrial septal defects
What happens in transposition of the great vessels?
The septum that forms in truncus anteriosus does not take spiral course, meaning that the great vessels are not connected to the correct chambers
What is the Tetralogy of Fallot?
A group of 4 lesions occurring together
What is the Tetralogy of Fallot a result of?
A single development defect
What does Tetralogy of Fallot do?
Places the outflow portion of interventricular septum too far in anterior and cephalad directions
What can cause CHD?
What environmental factors can cause CHD?
Tetragenicity from drugs, alcohol etc
Give two examples of maternal infections that can cause CHS?
What does a left to right hunt require?
What happens when there is a left to right shunt?
Blood from left heart returns to the lungs instead of going to the body
Is increased lung blood flow damaging?
Not by itself
What is the problem with a left to right shunt?
Increased pulmonary artery or pulmonary venous pressure can be damaging
What does a right to left shunt require?
A hole and distal obstruction
What is the problem with a right to left shunt?
Deoxygenated blood bypasses the lungs
What is an acyanotic heart defects?
Defects that do not result in a lower than normal concentration of oxygen in the blood
Give 5 acyanotic heart defects
Atrial septal defect
Patent Foramen Ovale
Ventricular septum defect
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Coarctation of Aorta
What is an atrial septal defect?
An opening in the septum between two atria that persists following birth
What is the incidence of atrial septal defects?
67 in 100,000 live births
What does the foramen ovale do?
It exists prenatally to permit right to left shunting of oxygenated blood
What is the foramen ovale designed to do?
Close promptly after birth
What does failure of the foramen ovale to close allow?
Blood to continue to flow between the two atria postnatally
In what direction is flow when there is an atrial septal defect?
Mainly from left to right
Why is the flow mainly from left to right when there is an atrial septal defect?
Because left atrial pressure is greater than right atrial pressure
What is the result of the flow mainly being from left to right when there is an atrial septal defect?
There is no mixing of deoxygenated blood with oxygenated blood being pumped around the circulation
Where do ASD’s occur?
Almost anywhere along the septum
What is the most common site for ASDs?
The foramen ovale
What is it called when the atrial septal defect is at the foramen ovale?
An ostium secundum ASD