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ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > Congential Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Congential Heart Disease Deck (92)
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1

How common is congenital heart disease?

Common Incidence of 6-8 per 1000 births

2

What is the most common type of congenital heart defect?

Ventricular septal defects

3

What is the second most common type of congenital heart disease?

Atrial septal defects

4

What happens in transposition of the great vessels?

The septum that forms in truncus anteriosus does not take spiral course, meaning that the great vessels are not connected to the correct chambers

5

What is the Tetralogy of Fallot?

A group of 4 lesions occurring together

6

What is the Tetralogy of Fallot a result of?

A single development defect

7

What does Tetralogy of Fallot do?

Places the outflow portion of interventricular septum too far in anterior and cephalad directions

8

What can cause CHD?

Genetics
Environment 
Maternal infections

9

What environmental factors can cause CHD?

Tetragenicity from drugs, alcohol etc

10

Give two examples of maternal infections that can cause CHS?

Rubella 
Toxoplasmosis

11

What does a left to right hunt require?

A hole

12

What happens when there is a left to right shunt?

Blood from left heart returns to the lungs instead of going to the body

13

Is increased lung blood flow damaging?

Not by itself

14

What is the problem with a left to right shunt?

Increased pulmonary artery or pulmonary venous pressure can be damaging

15

What does a right to left shunt require?

A hole and distal obstruction

16

What is the problem with a right to left shunt?

Deoxygenated blood bypasses the lungs

17

What is an acyanotic heart defects?

Defects that do not result in a lower than normal concentration of oxygen in the blood

18

Give 5 acyanotic heart defects

Atrial septal defect 
Patent Foramen Ovale 
Ventricular septum defect 
Patent Ductus Arteriosus 
Coarctation of Aorta

19

What is an atrial septal defect?

An opening in the septum between two atria that persists following birth

20

What is the incidence of atrial septal defects?

67 in 100,000 live births

21

What does the foramen ovale do?

It exists prenatally to permit right to left shunting of oxygenated blood

22

What is the foramen ovale designed to do?

Close promptly after birth

23

What does failure of the foramen ovale to close allow?

Blood to continue to flow between the two atria postnatally

24

In what direction is flow when there is an atrial septal defect?

Mainly from left to right

25

Why is the flow mainly from left to right when there is an atrial septal defect?

Because left atrial pressure is greater than right atrial pressure

26

What is the result of the flow mainly being from left to right when there is an atrial septal defect?

There is no mixing of deoxygenated blood with oxygenated blood being pumped around the circulation

27

Where do ASD’s occur?

Almost anywhere along the septum

28

What is the most common site for ASDs?

The foramen ovale

29

What is it called when the atrial septal defect is at the foramen ovale?

An ostium secundum ASD

30

Where does an ostium primum ASD occur?

At the inferior part of the septum