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ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > Development of the CVS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of the CVS Deck (140):
1

What is the purpose of the first two weeks of embryonic development?

To create the tissues of the future embryo and future placenta, achieving the right cells of the right type in the right place

2

What does the third week of embryonic development achieve?

Creates the three germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm

3

Where does the cardiovascular system develop from?

The mesoderm

4

What happens in the fourth week of embryological development?

It creates a recognisable body form  Mesoderm begins to organise

5

Where does the cardiogenic area initially lie on the embryonic disc?

In the wrong place- anterior to the buccopharyngeal membrane

6

What is the cardiogenic field of the embryonic disc?

A collection of specialised mesodermal cells that’s creating vascular like tissue and all its constituents

7

What forms about the cardiogenic field?

The pericardial cavity

8

What happens within the pericardial cavity?

Specialisation of the mesoderm, and differentiation of blood cells, tiny vessels and ultimately, the primitive heart

9

What is found within the jelly of the pericardial sac?

Blood islands

10

What happens as blood islands continue to develop?

You get tiny blood vessels beginning to appear

11

What creates a heart tube?

Lateral folding

12

What brings the heart into the thoracic region?

Cephalocaudal folding

13

Where is the heart after cephalocaudal folding?

Still more cranial than is ultimately the case

14

What is the overall result of folding?

It puts the tube into the first big shared cavity, the intraembryonic coelom

15

What ultimately happens to the intraembryonic coelom?

This cavity ultimately becomes divided by the diaphragm, into the thorax and the abdominal cavity

16

How many heart tubes develop?

Two, one on either side of the midline

17

What happens when lateral folding pushes the two tubes together?

They fuse together to give the primitive heart tube

18

What has happened once cephalocaudal folding has put the heart tubes in the right place?

The primitive tube is sitting within a space that has opened up to accommodate it, the pericardial cavity

19

How is the heart tube suspended in the pericardial cavity?

A very thin membrane

20

What happens to the thin membrane suspending the heart tube?

It degenerates, leaving the heart tube tethered cranially and caudally, but free to move around

21

What does the primitive heart tube consist of?

Aortic roots  Truncus arteriosus  Bulbus cordis  Ventricle Atrium  Sinus venosus

22

What happens as the heart tube moves up from the atrium to the ventricle to bulbus cordis?

It becomes tapered, becoming narrower as we proceed out of the heart tube and into outflow

23

What is looping fundamental for?

The normal proceeding of cardiac development

24

What does continued elongation of the heart tube result in?

Bending

25

Why does the heart tube continue to elongate?

To meet the advancing needs of the foetus as it grows

26

Why does the heart tube bend as it elongates?

Because it is growing into a space that is fixed by the pericardial sac, and so as the tube gets longer, it needs to fold up

27

When does the elongation of the heart tube process begin?

Day 23

28

When is the elongation of the heart tube process complete?

Day 28

29

What does the early occurrence of the heart tube elongation illustrate?

That the embryo needs a cardiovascular system to support itself, as it’s outgrown the capacity to support its need via simple diffusion alone

30

In what direction does the cephalic portion of the heart tube grow?

Ventrally, caudally, and to the right

31

In what direction does the caudal portion of the heart tube grow?

Dorsally, cranially and to the left

32

How do certain zones of the heart tube differ from others?

They grow at different rates

33

Give an example of where a zone of the heart tube grows at a different rate to the other?

Theres lots of growth of the ventricles, which causes the specific way the heart tube folds

34

What drives looping?

The limitation of space caused by tethering

35

What happens once looping is completed?

It pushes the outflow anterior to the inflow, producing the transverse pericardial sinus, and so the arteries end up in front of the veins

36

What does looping essentially do?

Puts everything in the right place to ensure that positioning can go ahead

37

Where does looping put the primordiums?

Puts the primordium of the right ventricle closest to the outflow tract, and the primordium of the left ventricle closes to the inflow tract

38

Where does looping put the atrium?

Dorsal to the bulbus cordis

39

What is the positioning of the individual domains/areas on the primitive heart tube critical to?

Establishing normal partitioning

40

What happens after looping?

The atrium communicates with teh ventricles via the atrioventricular canal

41

What does the atrioventricular canal result from?

The pinching of the primitive heart tube at the junction between the primitive atrium and the primitive ventricle

42

Are the chambers at the point after looping?

No, it is all continuous

43

What is initially true of the left and right sinus horns?

They are of equal size

44

What is true of the venous system in the embryo?

It is very symmetrical, with a highly symmetrical arrangement of venous drainage of placenta, yolk sac and body

45

What quickly happens to the venous system?

The symmetrical arrangement is lost, and venous return shifts to the right hand side, and so with right sinus horn becomes dominant, with the left sinus horn receding

46

What happens to the right sinus horn?

It is absorbed by the enlarging right atrium

47

What does the primitive atrium become?

Essentially, the right atrium

48

What is the right atrium also developed from?

The sinus venosus, as the right horn gets engulfed

49

What does the right atrium receive?

Venous drainage from the body (venae cavae) and the heart (coronary sinus)

50

What is the coronary sinus?

The remnant of the left sinus horn

51

What does the left atrium develop from?

A small portion of the primitive atrium. It also absorbs the proximal parts of the pulmonary veins.

52

What does the left atrium receive?

Oxygenated blood from the lungs

53

What does the embryo not commit a lot of energy to?

Structures that it doesn’t need until the end of development- the limb’s and lungs

54

When do limbs and lungs develop?

Towards the end of foetal life

55

What happens from the tiny zone of the primitive atrium that ultimately gives the left atrium?

A new vessel sprouts, the primitive pulmonary veins

56

What happens to the left atrium as development of the heart and lungs continue?

It engulfs the proximal parts of the primordial pulmonary veins, and then proceeds further out, until it ultimately engulfs all the way up, leaving the entrance of the four pulmonary veins

57

Why is there an oblique sinus within the pericardial sac?

Due to development/remodelling of the venous inflow to the developing heart tube

58

How is the oblique sinus formed?

As the left atrium expands, absorbing the pulmonary veins

59

What needs to be established in the foetus?

A foetal circulation that is dependant on oxygen rich blood coming from a place that doesn’t exist after birth- the placenta

60

How is foetal circulation from the placenta achieved?

Through the umbilical circulation

61

What happens to the lungs in the foetus?

They are non functional until after birth

62

What is the result of foetal lungs being non-functional until after birth?

The foetus must receive oxygenated blood from the mother via the placenta

63

What happens at the placenta?

Gas exchange

64

How is blood passed from placenta to body?

By the umbilical vein

65

How does the circulation bypass the lungs and liver?

By action of shunts

66

Why must the umbilical vein bypass the liver?

Because the first thing the oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein encounters, but the foetal liver is very metabolically active, and so would use up all the oxygen and there would be none left for the rest of the body

67

What do we need to ensure happens of the shunts?

They close immediately after birth

68

What route does oxygenated blood from the mother take?

It enters the placenta, bypasses the liver, and enters the right atrium through the inferior vena cava

69

Does oxygenated blood enter the right ventricle in the foetal circulation?

A small amount does

70

Why does a small amount of blood enter the right ventricle in the foetal circulation?

They pass to the pulmonary trunk to give the lungs the nutrition they need to develop

71

How does the blood thats gone to the pulmonary trunk bypass the lungs?

By the ductus arteriosus

72

What does the ductus arteriosus connect?

The pulmonary trunk to the aorta

73

What happens to the majority of blood in the pulmonary circulation?

It bypasses the right ventricle and lungs, and goes directly to the left atrium, by action of the foramen ovale shunt, and then to the left atrium, to the aorta, which passes oxygenated blood to the body

74

What happens to deoxygenated blood?

It returns to the placenta and goes back to the mother

75

Why does blood in the foetal circulation bypass the lungs?

Partially because there is no point, as the blood is already oxygenated, and partially because we need to protect the developing lungs, as they are behind in their developmental programme, and so would not be able to cope if we were to send all of the cardiac output to the lungs

76

What does the outflow of the primitive heart tube feed into?

A structure known as the aortic sac

77

What does the aortic sac feed into?

An early arterial system

78

What does the early arterial system begin as?

A bilaterally symmetrical system of arched vessels

79

What happens to the early arterial system?

It undergoes extensive remodelling to create the major arteries of the heart

80

What does the early arterial system consist of?

5 arches, number 1-4, and 6

81

What happens during remodelling of the early arterial system?

There is a loss of all or parts of some of the arches

82

What happens to the 4th arch of the early arterial system?

It is remodelled so that the right part becomes the subclavian artery, and the left becomes the arch of the aorta

83

What is the 6th arch of the early arterial system known as?

The pulmonary arch

84

What happens to the pulmonary arch?

The right part becomes the right pulmonary artery, and the left part becomes the left pulmonary artery and ductus arteriosus

85

What does each aortic arch have?

A corresponding nerve

86

What is the nerve corresponding to the 6th aortic arch?

The recurrent laryngeal nerve (br vagus, CN X)

87

Where does the right branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve descend?

To T1-T2

88

Where does the left branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve descend?

To T4-T5

89

What do the branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve innervate?

The larynx

90

Why are the branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve anatomically unusual?

They descend down the thorax, then come back on themselves to innervate the muscles

91

What influences the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerves?

The caudal shift of the developing heart The expansion of the developing neck region The need for a foetal shunt between the pulmonary trunk and aorta

92

What links the primitive atrium and ventricle?

Atrioventricular canal

93

What is created to divide the two primitive atria?

An interatrial septum

94

What is created to divide the two primitive ventricles?

The interventricular septum

95

What is the result of the septation of the outflow tract?

Blood is diverted from two separate ventricles into separate circulations through the pulmonary trunk and the aorta

96

What does septation, and the creation of the interventricular and interatrial septums create?

4 chambers, and selective outflow

97

Where do the beginnings of septation occur?

The atrioventricular canal

98

What is the purpose of the atrioventricular canal?

After looping, the atrium communicates with the ventricle via this canal

99

What are endocardial cushions?

Tissue growing in the walls of endocardium

100

Where do endocardial cushions start developing?

In the atrioventricular region

101

What do the endocardial cushions do?

Protrude out into the canal, pushing into the initially patent channel. They grow towards each other and fuse in the muddle

102

What does the fusion of endocardial cushions create?

A platform dividing the developing heart into right and left channels, and so the beginning of a structure towards which walls can grow

103

Why is atrial septation complex?

Because need to separate and create two discreet atria, but also allow for a foetal shunt

104

What does division of the common atrium involve?

Formation of two septa, with three holes to allow the opportunity for blood to shunt in foetal life

105

What is the septum primum?

A wedge of tissue that grows down towards the fused endocardial cushions from the roof of the atrium

106

What is the ostium primum?

The hole present before the septum primum fuses with the endocardial cushions

107

What happens before the ostium primum closes?

A second hole, the ostium secondum, appears in the septum primum

108

What is the septum secundum?

A second, cresent shaped septum that grows

109

What is present in the septum secundum?

A small hole, the foramen ovale

110

What is true of the foramen ovale and ostium secundum?

They are staggered

111

Why are the foramen ovale and ostium secundum staggered?

So there is a right to left shunt, as the blood entering the right atrium via the vena cava causes a high pressure, pushing the septums apart so blood can flow

112

What do both the left and right atria have?

The auricles

113

What are the auricles?

Components derived from the primitive atrium

114

What does the right atrium absorb?

The sinus venosus

115

What does the left atrium absorb?

The pulmonary vein it sprouted, and its 4 branches

116

What is the fossa ovalis?

The adult remnant of the shunt used in utero to bypass the lungs

117

What are the components of the ventricular septum?

Muscular and membranous

118

What does the muscular portion of the ventricular septum form?

Most of the septum

119

How does the muscular portion of the ventricular septum grow?

Upwards towards the fused endocardial cushions

120

What does the growth of the muscular portion towards the endocardial cushions leave?

A small gap called the primary interventricular foramen

121

What is the membranous portion of the interventricular septum formed by?

Connective tissue derived from endocardial cushions

122

What does the membraneous portion of the interventricular septum do?

Fills the primary interventricular foramen

123

Where do endocardial cushions appear?

In the truncus arteriosus

124

What happens as endocardial cushions grow?

They twist around each other, forming a spiral septum

125

What is formation of the twisted endocardial cushions dependant on?

Contribution from the neural crest

126

Where does the neural crest migrate from?

Outside of the cardiogenic field

127

What is present before endocardial cushions appear?

A right and left channels

128

What happens to the left and right channels when endocardial cushions appear?

It creates a spiral divisions of the outflow tract

129

What does the spiral division of the outflow tract create?

The ability to separate outflow of the left ventricle from the right ventricle, and divert it to the appropriate site

130

What is the spiral arrangement of the outflow tract the reason for?

The aorta and pulmonary trunk seem to wrap around each other

131

What happens after birth?

Respiration begins, opening the pulmonary circulation

132

What is the result of the opening of the pulmonary circulation?

Left atrial pressure increases, and so forces the foramen ovale closed

133

What happens to the ductus arteriosus after birth?

It contracts in the presence of the higher oxygen saturation

134

What happens to the contraction of the ductus arteriosus over time?

It becomes an anatomical contraction, making this vessel fibrotic

135

What happens when the placental support is removed?

The ductus venous closes as there is no blood flowing through it

136

Why does the foramen ovale close at birth

Because the LA pressure is greater than the RA pressure, so the septum primum is pushed against the septum secundum, and so blood cannot pass through

137

What does the foramen ovale become?

The fossa ovalis

138

What does the ductus arteriosus become?

The ligamentum arteriosum

139

What does the ductus venosus become?

The ligamentum venosum

140

What does the umbilical vein become?

The ligamentum teres