The Peripheral Circulation Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > The Peripheral Circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Peripheral Circulation Deck (92)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the main components of the CVS?

Heart, Arteries, Arterioles, Capillaries, Veins

2

What is the function of the heart?

Cyclic muscular pump that enables circulation of the blood

3

What is the function of arteries?

Gross conduction and distribution of blood supply

4

What is the purpose of arterioles?

Local distribution and fine control of defined tissue volume

5

What is the function of capillaries?

Microdiffusion and filteration

6

What is the function of veins?

Collection and return, and capacitance

7

What is compliance?

Ability to distend and increase volume due to pressure increase

8

What is capacitance?

Effectively the same as compliance- a measure of relative volume increase per unit in pressure

9

What is pressure?

A measure of mechanical energy gradient in blood that drives flow around different parts of the system

10

What does cyclic muscular contraction produce?

Pressure waves to move blood into circulation

11

How is cardiac output calculated?

Stroke volume x heart rate

12

What is the average cardiac output?

~5l/min

13

What happens with each beat of the heart?

Stroke volume is delivered to the major arterial tree

14

What is the resistance of the major arterial tree?

Low

15

What is the compliance of the major arterial tree?

~1-2% change / mmHg 
Still very important

16

What is the pressure of the major arterial tree?

High

17

What needs to be true of arterial pressures?

They need to be high enough to drive cardiac output through high resistance arterioles

18

How much can resistance very from arteriole to arteriole?

Greatly

19

What is total peripheral resistance?

The sum of all arteriolar resistance

20

What does compliance affect?

Pulsatile pressure flow in arteries

21

In what manner does the heart eject blood?

Cyclically

22

When does blood flow into arteries?

Systole

23

What does compliance act to do?

Store mechanical energy of rising pressure wave during systole, and so dissipates energy more gradually over diastole

24

What would happen if arteries were very rigid walled?

Pressure would rise enough in systole to force whole stroke volume through TPR, but fall to 0 in diastole

25

What effect does aortic compliance have?

Dampens the pulsatile nature of the systolic pressure wave

26

Which vessels act to smooth out the pressure wave during systole?

Aorta and elastic arteries and less smooth muscle

27

What is the Windkessel Effect?

The capacitance effect, whereby more blood flows in than out, so pressure doesn’t rise as rapidly because elastic arteries recoil in diastole to release energy, which smooths flow through arterioles

28

What is systolic pressure?

The maximum arterial pressure that is reached during systole

29

What is diastolic pressure?

The minimum arterial pressure that is reached during diastole

30

What does the blood pressure gradient do?

Drives flow all all time points in the cardiac cycle