The Autonomic Nervous System and the CVS Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > The Autonomic Nervous System and the CVS > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Autonomic Nervous System and the CVS Deck (162)
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1

What is the ANS important for?

Many physiological functions

2

Give 4 physiological functions the ANS is responsible for?

Heart rate
Blood pressure
Body temperature 
Co-ordinating the body’s response to exercise and stress

3

What does the ANS exert control over?

Smooth muscle 
Exocrine secretion
Rate and force of contraction of heart

4

What smooth muscle is under ANS control?

Vascular 
Visceral

5

What are the two divisions of the ANS?

Parasymphathetic
Sympathetic

6

What is the division of the ANS based on?

Anatomical grounds

7

What is sometimes given as the third division of the ANS?

Enteric

8

What is the enteric division?

A network of neurones surrounding the GI tract

9

What is the enteric division normally controlled via?

Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres

10

How are the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems organised?

Two neurones are arranged in series. 
One starts in the CNS 
The two neurones synapse in the peripheral nervous system

11

Where is the cell body of the preganglionic neurone?

In the CNS

12

Where is the cell body of the postganglionic neurone?

In the PNS

13

Give 12 organs innervated by the sympathetic nervous system

Eyes
Blood vessels 
Salivary glands 
Heart
Lungs
Adrenal medulla 
Liver
GI tract
Bladder
Genitalia
Blood vessels
Sweat glands

14

Give 9 organs innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, and what nerve innervates them

Eye- III
Lacrimal glands- VII
Salivary glands- IX
Heart- X
Lungs- X
Upper GI tract- X
Lower GI tract- Nervi erigentes 
Bladder- Nervi erigentes 
Genitalia- Nervi erigentes

15

What is the origin of the sympathetic division?

Thoracolumbar origin

16

Where do the preganglionic neurones of the sympathetic division arise from?

Segments T1 to L2 (or L3)

17

Where do most preganglionic neurones in the sympathetic division synapse with postganglionic neurones?

In the paravertebral chain of ganglia

18

Which sympathetic nerve synapse in a number of prevertebral ganglia?

Coeliac 
Superior mesenteric 
Inferior mesenteric ganglia

19

What is the original of parasympathetic nerve?

Craniosacral

20

What is meant by craniosacral?

Medulla part of brain stem and region of spinal cord

21

Where do preganglionic parasympathetic nerves travel?

In cranial nerves (III, VII, IX and X), or sacral outflow from S2-S4

22

Where do parasympathetic preganglionic synapse?

In ganglia close to target tissue

23

How long are the postganglionic neurones of the parasympathetic division?

Short

24

What do preganglionic neurones release?

Acetylcholine (ACh)

25

What is ACh?

An excitatory neurotransmitter

26

What do ACh do?

Acts on certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in postganglionic membranes

27

What do nicotinic ACh receptors have?

An integral ion channel that permeable to K and Na ions

28

What does the ion channel in nicotinic ACh receptors cause?

An overwhelming influx of Na ions, causing depolarisation and therefore the firing of an action potential

29

What are postganglionic sympathetic neurones usually?

Noradrenergic

30

What is meant by noradrenergic?

Use noradrenaline as a transmitter