Introduction to the Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > Introduction to the Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Introduction to the Cardiovascular System Deck (107)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is true of all living cells?

They are metabolically active

2

What is the result of living cells being metabolically active?

They use oxygen and nutrients, and produce carbon dioxide and other waste

3

How can single celled or tiny organisms get oxygen and nutrients?

Directly by diffusion from the environment

4

What is diffusion?

Random movement that results in an overall movement from high concentration to a low concentration

5

What is the result in small organisms being able to get oxygen and nutrients directly by diffusion?

They don’t require a cardiovascular system

6

How many cells are in the human body?

10^14 (100 million)

7

What is the problem with the human body having so many cells?

Most are far away from a source of oxygen and nutrients, and therefore can’t obtain them from diffusion

8

Why does the body cells being far away from a source of oxygen and nutrients mean that it can’t get them by diffusion?

Because diffusion is proportional to distance squared, so it works well over short distances, but not larger distances as it takes far longer to travel across

9

What is the result of large cells being unable to get oxygen and nutrients by direct diffusion?

They need a gas exchange and circulatory system to carry oxygen and nutrients to cells, and carry waste produces away

10

What does the right heart do?

Pumps blood to the lungs

11

What happens to blood at the lungs?

Gas exchange takes place and blood becomes oxygenated

12

What happens to blood once it has become oxygenated?

It passes from the lungs to the left heart

13

What does the left heart do?

Pumps blood to the body cells

14

What happens to blood at the body cells?

Oxygen is released

15

What does deoxygenated blood return to the right heart via?

The kidneys and the gut

16

Why does blood return via the kidneys?

Filtering

17

Why does blood return via the gut?

Nutrient acquisition

18

What is the pulmonary circulation?

The circulation of blood form right heart to lungs, to left heart

19

Where is blood pumped in the pulmonary circulation?

Alveoli

20

Why is blood pumped to the alveoli?

So gas exchange can take place by diffusion

21

What is the systemic circulation?

The circulation of blood form left heart, to body, to right heart

22

How does blood in circulation travel?

By convective transport (flow)

23

What is the advantage of convective transport?

It works quickly over long distances

24

What is essential to allow diffusion to take place?

The mechanism for transporting substances close to  cells

25

What is the distribution system?

Vessels and blood

26

What is the heart?

Effectively, two pumps

27

What is the exchange mechanism?

The capillaries

28

What does blood transport around the body?

Oxygen 
Metabolic substrates 
Carbon dioxide 
Waste product

29

How does exchange of substances between the blood and body cells occur?

By diffusion

30

What does the cardiovascular system provide?

The correct conditions for diffusion to take place at the tissues and lungs