Ischaemic Heart Disease Flashcards Preview

ESA 2- Cardiovascular System > Ischaemic Heart Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ischaemic Heart Disease Deck (119)
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1

Where are the possible origins of chest pain?

Lungs and pleura
GI system; oesophagus, stomach, gall bladder
Chest wall
CVS- heart and great vessels

2

What can cause chest pain originating from the lungs and pleura?

Pneumonia
Pulmonary embolism
Pneumothorax

3

What can cause chest pain originating from the oesophagus?

Reflux

4

What can cause chest pain originating from the stomach?

Peptic ulcer disease

5

What can cause chest pain originating from the gall bladder?

Biliary colic
Cholecystitis

6

What components of the chest wall can cause chest pain?

Ribs
Muscles
Skin

7

What can cause chest pain originating from the ribs?

Fractures
Bone metastases

8

What aspects of the CVS can cause chest pain?

Myocardium
Pericardium
Aorta

9

What can cause chest pain originating from the myocardium?

Angina
MI

10

What can cause chest pain originating from the pericardium?

Pericarditis

11

What can cause chest pain originating from the aorta?

Aortic dissection

12

What kind of risk factors are there for coronary atheroma?

Modifiable and non-modifiable

13

What are the non-modifiable risks for coronary atheroma?

Increasing age
Male gender (females catch up after menopause)
Family history

14

What are the modifiable risk factors for coronary atheroma?

Hyperlipidaemia
Smoking
Hypertension
Diabetes mellitus
Exercise
Obesity
Stress

15

What are the most important risk for coronary atheroma?

Hyperlipidaemia
Smoking
Hypertension
Diabetes mellitus

16

What does coronary atheroma lead to?

Ischaemic heart disease

17

By how much does diabetes mellitus increase the risk of ischaemic heart disease?

Doubles it

18

What is the nature of ischaemic chest pain?

Central, retrosternal, or left sided
Pain may radiate to shoulders and arms, with the left side more common than right, along with the neck, jaw, epigastrum and back

19

Can ischaemia present with pain in other areas, but not the chest?

No

20

How is ischaemic chest pain described as?

Tightening, heavy, crushing, constricting and pressure
Occasionally, the pain is described as a burning epigastric pain

21

When is ischaemic chest pain particularly described as burning epigastric pain?

In an inferior MI

22

How does ischaemic chest pain vary?

In intensity, duration, onset, precipitating, aggravating and relieving factors

23

Do the symptoms associated with ischaemic chest pain vary?

Yes

24

What happens to the symptoms of ischaemic chest pain?

They get progressively worse, from stable angina to unstable angina, to MI

25

When does angina occur?

When a plaque occludes more than 70% of the lumen

26

How does stable angina develop?

Atheromatous plaques, with a necrotic centre and fibrous cap, build up in the coronary vessels, leaving less space for the passage of blood. This leads to ischaemia of the myocardium

27

Describe the chest pain in stable angina

Typical ischaemic chest pain in brief episodes, brought on by exertion, emotion, particularly after meals and in cold weather

28

What is the chest pain in stable angina described as?

Mild to moderate pain

29

How are acute episodes of angina treated?

Sub-lingual nitrate spray/tablet

30

How are episodes of angina prevented?

ß-blockers
Ca channel blockers
Oral nitrates