Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

Cell Biology > Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (64)
1

Name the germ layers in the embryo

Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm

2

What does mesenchymal tissue do?

Mesenchymal tissue creaes adult connective tissue like blood, supportive and proper tissues

3

What is adipose tissue dervied from?

The mesoderm, this separates brown and white fat

4

Where is connective tissue derived from?

Mainly the mesoderm

5

What is the main function of connective tissue?

Structural support

6

What functions does connective tissue provide?

Structural support, cushioning, delivery and storage of nutrients, cell repair

7

What is a fixed (resident) cell?

A cell that does not move from the tissue in which it originates

8

What is a non-resident cell?

A cell that is transient between tissues

9

What is connective tissue made of?

Cells (fixed or mobile), fibers, and ground substance

10

How does connective tissue differ from epithelial cells?

Connective tissue does not have a basement membrane

11

Name fixed cells

Fibroblast, Macrophage, Mast cell, Percyte, Adipocyte, Mesenchymal cell

12

Name mobile cells

Macrophage, plasma cell, lymphocyte, polymorphonuclear cells (neutrophils), eosinophil, basophils

13

What does the bone marrow make?

multipotent stem cells that evolve in to immune cells (eosinophil, neutrophil, plasma, lymphocyte, macrophage, osteoclast, red blood cell)

14

What does the mesenchymal cell make?

embryonic connective tissues including osteoblasts, adipocytes, and fibrolbasts

15

Name typical peripheral blood cells

Erythrocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, platelets

16

Describe a fibroblast

Produce collagen and elastin, oblong heterochromatic nucleus with no visible cytoplasm

17

What cell is a macrophage derived from?

Monocyte

18

What is the main function of macrophages?

Engulfing antigen and presenting the antigen for T cells. T cells are activated to either cytotoxic CD4 T cells or helper CD8 T cells

19

Where are dendritic cells found

Dendritic cells have tree-like structures and are found in the skin and epithelium.

20

What is the function of dendritic cells

Present antigen to stimulate B or T cells at lymph nodes. Dendritic cells have a euchromatic nuclei and large cytoplasm

21

Where are mast cells located

Connective tissue. Mast cells produce heparin and histamine

22

What is heparin

Anti coagulant

23

Describe mast cell

Red granulated cytoplasm with large, dark nucleus
Mast cells account for allergic responses and wound repair

24

What is a pericyte

Contractile cell located on the edge of vasculature. Dark nucleus with little cytoplasm

25

Describe the mononuclear phagocyte system

Bone marrow makes a pluripotential stem cell, which matures to a committed stem cell to monoblast to promonocyte to monocyte that is secreted to peripheral blood. Monocyte becomes macrophage

26

Describe a lymphocyte

Dark, round nucleus with no cytoplasm

27

Describe a plasma cell

A mixture of heterochromatin and euchromatin in the nucleus to give a spotted look, basophilic cytoplasm and large golgi apparatus

28

How are antibodies produced

B-cells digest the antigen and presents antigen on cell surface. B cell interacts with activated T cells, differentiates in to a plasma cell and begins producing antibodies

29

Name types of lymphocytes

CD4+ T cells, CD8 B cells, Helper T cells, Natural Killer T cells, regulatory T cells

30

Describe a neutrohpil

Multi-lobed with fine, eosinophilic granulated cytoplasm. Granules contain proteases and respond to infections and wounds by phagocytosis. Neutrophils can cause vasodilation and account for half of the white blood cells

31

Describe eosinophils

Eosinophils are bi-lobed with red granules in the cytoplasm. Eosinophils respond to parsitic infections and produce peroxidase

32

Describe basophils

Basophils release histamine for allergic reactions are are rare

33

What are the longest and shortest cell life spans?

Lymphocyte (several weeks)
Basophils (2-3 days)

34

How many more white blood cells does the dog have compared to the human

Twice as many (8k vs 17k)

35

What is uncommon to see in the peripheral blood?

Neutrophil precursors: myelocytes and myeloblasts

36

What do precursor cells in the peripheral blood signal?

A large loss of blood, parasites, cancer

37

What are band cells?

Neutrophil. Band cells in peripheral blood may indicate illness

38

What are segmented cells?

Neutrophil. Segmented cells may indicate cancer or suppressed immune system

39

What fibers make the extracellular matrix?

Collagen and elastin

40

What is the most abundant protein in the human body

Collagen. Collagen is found in most supporting tissues

41

Describe Type I collagen

Produced in fibroblasts, most common. Found in fibrous supporting tissues (dermis, tendons, ligaments)

42

Describe Type II collagen

Found in hyaline cartilage and elastic cartlage, and is made of fine fibrils that disperse in the ground substance

43

Describe Type III collagen

Made of very fine reticular fibers (reticulin). Reticulin forms a mesh network for the liver, bone marrow and lymphoid organs

44

Describe Type IV collagen

Does not have fibrils but forms a meshwork with myofibrils for basement membranes

45

Describe Type VII collagen

Forms fibrils that anchor to the basement membrane

46

Describe elastin

Synthesized by fibroblasts, allows stretching and recoil. Present in skin, lung, blood vessels

47

What is the difference between collagen and elastin

Elastin stains brighter pink (darker) than collagen and is wavy. Elastin is stretchable, and disorganized while relaxed and organized while stretched. Elastin is present in arteries and appears shiny in the microscope

48

What is the ground substance?

The ground substance fills spaces between cells and fibers and provides a physical barrier. It is made from glycosaminoglycans (GAG) that are negatively charged and hydrophilic

49

What is the most common GAG?

Hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is not sulfated like most GAGs and is a very large molecule

50

Name other GAGs present in ground substance

Fibronectin, Chondronectin, Laminin. Interstitial fluid is present in ground substance

51

Why is cartilage resilient and compressible?

Proteoglycan aggregates repel each other

52

What stem cells are found in adults?

Pericytes (blood vessel) and satellite cells

53

What stem cells are found in infants?

Mesenchymal cells

54

Types of connective tissue

Loose irregular, Dense irregular, Dense regular

55

Describe loose irregular tissue

The most common connective tissue. Contains many resident and mobile cells, and consists of collagen and elastin. The fiber arrangement is loose and random to allow flexibility. Found in superficial fascia and lamina of the gut

56

Describe Dense irregular tissue

Densely packed, randomly arranged fibers. The skin and organ capsules have dense irregular

57

Dense regular

Made mostly of Type I collagen that are packed tightly and arranged in parallel manner. Fibrocytes (mature fibroblasts) are flattened between thick collagen fibers

58

What are made from dense regular tissue

Tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses. These structures have poor blood and nerve supplies and look smoother than muscle fibers

59

Describe dense regular elastic tissue

Dense elastic tissue is not common. It is densely packed, parallel elastin. Present in the aorta

60

What makes adipose tissue?

Adipocytes (single, clusters or masses of adipocytes)

61

How to differentiate an adipocyte

Basal lamina (CT does not have basal lamina)

62

Describe brown fat

Big nuclei, many mitochondria, stains darker than white fat and is multilocular which binds many oil droplets together

63

Compare brown fat vs white fat

Brown fat has higher energy than white fat, brown fat stores glycogen and is found in muscles, brown fat has many capillaries

64

What has the highest concentration of brown fat?

Infants and people who live in colder climates