Epithelium Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epithelium Deck (124)
1

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is responsible for

Protein assembly, secretory granules, ribosomes

2

Ribosomes stain

dark

3

Golgi Apparatus

packages molecules to vesicles

4

Basal bodies

formed from centrioles with cylindrical microtubules

5

Peroxisomes

break down long chain FAs and H2O2

6

What are microfilaments made of?

Actin

7

What are microtubules made of?

Tubulin

8

What do chief cells release?

Pepsinogen

9

What do parietal cells release?

Gastric acid to change pepsinogen to pepsin

10

What color do parietal cells stain?

Pink with a dark nucleus (fried egg)

11

What color do chief cells stain?

Dark and located next to parietal cells

12

Are pale staining nuclei more or less active than dark staining nuclei?

More active

13

What organelle stains pink?

Mitochondria

14

What effect does mucus have on the nucleus?

It displaces the nucleus to the edge of the cell and creates a pyramidal cell

15

What is a defining characteristic of the plasma cell?

The golgi apparatus does not stain and contrasts the nucleus

16

Why do plasma cells stain blue?

The production of antibodies by ribosomes

17

Polymorphonucleur cell

Neutrophil

18

What type of microfilaments are in microvilli

Actin filaments

19

How do you determine microvilli under a microscope

It is a shiny brush border

20

What are cilia made of?

Tublin, microtubules

21

What surface modification is a basal body?

CIlia

22

Which is a more active nucleus? Round or elongated?

Round

23

If a nucleus stains dark, what is it composed of?

Heterochromatic (compressed DNA)

24

What color does euchromatic nuclei stain?

Lighter than heterochromatic

25

What are cell inclusions?

Temporary structures that accumulate inside the cell

26

Name types of cell inclusions

Lipids, crystals, pigment

27

What causes vacuoles in stains?

Lipids and glycogen don't stain and leave empty spaces

28

What color does melanin stain?

Brown

29

Describe prophase

DNA is jumbled and not separaed

30

Describe Metaphase

Chromosome are lined along the center

31

Describe Anaphase

Chromosomes are beginning to separate to opposite sides

32

Describe Telophase

Cleavage furrow appears

33

What are artifacts?

Human made or method-dependent results that appear part of the cell but are not

34

Name possible artifacts

Shrinkage, knife marks, folds and tears, separation of cells, dissolution of lipids (inclusion)

35

Where is endoderm located?

Digestive tract, glands, and respiratory tissue

36

Where is mesoderm located?

Muscle and connective tissues, genitourinary and circulatory system

37

Where is ectoderm located?

Nervous tissue, epithelium of the skin and epidermis, connective tissue of the head

38

What is the purpose of epithelium?

To line and cover the surface of all organs

39

What are the surface modifications?

Microvilli, cilia, stereocilia

40

Where is the basolateral membrane?

Just above the basement membrane

41

Where are surface modifications located?

On the apical side of the cell

42

Name a non-polarized cell

Endocrine cells

43

What is the purpose of the basement membrane?

Divides the epithelium and connective tissue

44

Where are stromal cells located?

Between tubular cells

45

List epithelium types

Cuboidal, simple columnar, simple columnar ciliated, pseudostratified columnar ciliated, simple squamous, stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal transitional

46

What is a terminal bar?

A junctional complex located on the lateral surface (basal modification)

47

What is a constant feature of junctional complexes?

Tight junctions

48

Describe adhesion belts

Actin filaments and cadherins enable binding between cells. Adhesion is Ca+ dependent

49

Describe tight junctions

The fusion of adjacent cell membranes to make a barrier to prevent diffusion of molecules and ions

50

Describe desmosomes

Desmosomes are anchored by intermediate filaments and bound with E-Caherin

51

Describe hemidesmosomes

Half desmosomes that bind only the basal cell surface to the basement membrane

52

Describe gap junctions

Gap junctions allow selective molecules t cross between adjacent membranes. Gap junctions can span 2 membranes

53

What is an important role of tight junction?

Preventing the spread of cancer cells

54

What do basal infoldings do?

Engulf fluid, bacteria and ions for transport

55

What are caveolae?

Invaginations for endocytosis.

56

What are pinocytotic vesicles?

Endocytosed particles from the caveolae that travel to the endosome for digestion

57

How are cilia structured?

9 doublet microtubules with 2 in the middle. The basal body contains 9 sets of triplet microtubules

58

Describe simple squamous epithelium

A single layer of flat cells with bulging nuclei and no cytoplasm

59

What is the epithelium of the blood vessel called?

Endothelium

60

Describe simple cuboidal cells

Equidimensional cells with a central nucleus

61

Describe simple columnar cells

Basal cells with elongated nucleus

62

Describe pseudostratified epithelium

Generally columnar, appeas stratified but is not. Seen with cilia, goblet cells, basal cells, and columnar cells.

63

Describe stratified squamous cells

Many layers, with the outermost layer being squamous in appearance. Cells move up and change from cuboidal to squamous and slough off at the top

64

What cells can be keratinized

Stratified squamous. Non-keratinized stratified squamous cells have nuclei on the top layer

65

What is the stratum corneum

Soft keratin located on top of the epithelium

66

What is the stratum lucidum

A band of dead and flattened keratinocytes (inconstant)

67

What is the stratum granulosum

Thin line of lamellar granules and keratohyalin granules that act as a water barrier

68

What is the stratum spinosum

Main layer of squamous cells attached by desmosomes

69

What is the stratum basale

Bottom layer of epithelium, next to basement membrane and produces stem cells for epithelium

70

Where is transitional epithelium found

Urinary tract

71

What is an exocrine gland

Connected to the surface through ducts

72

What is an endocrine gland

No surface connection, secretes to blood

73

What is the secretory end piece of a gland

Adenomere

74

What are adenomeres made of

simple cuboidal, columnar or pyramidal cells

75

What type of cells do sebaceous glands have

Stratified cuboidal epithelia (very rare and found only in ducts)

76

What are unicellular glands

One single secretory cell in an epithelial layer (Goblet cell)

77

What are simple glands

Unbranched duct system, usually part of another organ

78

What are compound glands

Intricate duct system

79

Types of secretory units in glands

Tubular (straight, coiled) or alveolar/acinar (grape-like)

80

Glands with both tubular and alveolar units are called

Tubuloalveolar glands

81

Name the gland secretions

Mucus or Serous, or a mixture of both

82

How is serous different from mucus

Serous stains darker than mucus due to ribosomes. Mucous glands contain glycoprotein and stain light

83

What is the most common method of gland secretion

Merocrine; excretes through exocytosis

84

Describe apocrine

part of the cell is pinched off and secreted (rare, found in sweat and mammary)

85

Describe holocrine

Entire cell sloughs off, very rare (sebaceous)

86

What are negatively charged cell components?

DNA, RNA, ribosomes

87

What are positively charged cell components?

Mitochondria, proteins, collagens

88

Name peptides secreted by the heart

Atrial Natriuretic Petide, Brain natriuretic peptide

89

What is the effect of BNP

Vasodilation

90

What is the effect of ANP

Lipolysis

91

What is an intercalated duct?

The portion of an exocrine gland leading directly from the acinus to a striated duct

92

What is a striated duct?

A duct that connects the intercalated duct to a interlobular duct

93

What is a serous demilune?

A serous cell that is squished by mucus in a mixed production gland

94

Describe transitional epithelium

Columnar on the bottom and cuboidal on top when relaxed

95

What type of sweat gland is associated with hair?

Apocrine

96

What type of sweat gland is associated with no hair?

Eccrine

97

Where can you find stratified cuboidal epithelium

Sweat gland duct

98

Where can you find loose connective tissue?

Eye, lamina propria

99

Where can mesothelium be found?

Lung

100

Where can you find simple cuboidal epithelium?

Thyroid gland

101

Where can you find simple columnar epithelium?

Duodenum

102

Where can you find a goblet cell?

Duodenum

103

Where can you find pseudostratified columnar epithelium?

Trachea

104

Where can you find stratified squamous?

Esophagus

105

What is pyknosis?

Cells are degenerating and breaking up

106

What type of gland is a goblet cell?

Unicellular

107

What type of gland is sebaceous?

Alveolar

108

Where would you find a simple tubular gland?

Uterus

109

Where can you find a serous demilune?

Esophagous, salivary gland

110

What is an example of a compound gland?

Parotid (salivary) gland

111

What type of gland is the pancreas?

Serous compound

112

Where is mesenchymal tissue found?

Embroys

113

What is the first stage of connective tissue development?

Mesenchyme develops some collagen fibers, "Wharton's jelly"

114

Loose connective tissue is also known as

Areolar

115

Where can you find loose connective tissue

Mesentery

116

Mononuclear phagocyte system

Macrophage, Kupffer cells, osteaclasts

117

What cells are differentiated from B lymphocytes?

Plasma cells

118

What is the main connective tissue in the dermis

Dense irregular

119

Where is pigmented connective tissue found?

Eye

120

Describe a white fat cell

Unilocular, only 1 fat droplet

121

Where is dense regular CT found

Tendons, Ligaments, Aponeuroses

122

Where is dense elastin tissue found?

Nuchal ligament, aorta

123

What is the parenchyma

FUnctional part of solid organs (glands)

124

What proteins are associated with gap junctions

connexins