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Cell Biology > Integument > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integument Deck (58)
1

What are the 5 layers on skin?

Stratum corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale

2

Where does cell division of skin cells happen?

Stratum basale

3

What are the 2 layers of the dermis?

Papillary layer
Reticular layer

4

Characteristics of the papillary layer of the dermis

Dermal ridges interdigitate with rete pegs of the epidermis

5

Which layer is the thickest layer of the dermis?

Reticular

6

What is the most common cell of the epidermis?

Keratinocytes

7

What 2 cancers generally arise from keratinocytes?

Basal cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma

8

What are Langerhans cells?

Antigen-presenting cell found in Stratum spinosum

9

Where do melanocyte originate from?

Neural crest

10

What cells accept melanin from melanocytes?

Keratinocytes

11

What is a Merkel cell?

Modified keratinocyte in contact with nerve ending

12

Is the hair follicle continuous with the epidermis of the skin?

Yes

13

What are the sections of the hair?

Cuticle
Cortex
Medulla (thick hair)

14

What is the difference between the root and the shaft of hair?

Root is embedded in follicle
Shaft protrudes from surface

15

What does the bulb of the hair surround in the dermis?

Dermal papilla

16

Where is the cuticle located?

Between hair & inner root sheath

17

Where is the 'glassy' basement membrane of the hair follicle located?

Between outer root sheath & connective tissue

18

Where are dividing cells located?

Bulb

19

Where are the cells that form the medulla located?

Tip of dermal papilla

20

Where are the cells that form the side of the hair located?

Cortex

21

Where do the cells for the cuticle and inner root sheath form?

Base of papilla

22

What are the 3 hair types?

Guard
Wool
Sensory

23

Where are the nerve endings located in tactile hairs?

Connective tissue

24

What is the main difference between tactile and normal hair?

Tactile hair has venous sinus

25

The venus sinus in tactile hair divides which layer of the follicle in to 2 layers?

Connective tissue sheath

26

What 2 types of tissue is the hoof made of?

Tubular horn
Intertubular horn

27

What is the purpose of intertubular horn?

Holds tubular horn together

28

What layer produces cells for hoof growth?

Stratum basale

29

Similar to the epidermis, the hoof receives blood supply from the underlying connective tissue (dermis). What is this called in the horse?

Corium

30

What is the coronet?

Junction of hoof wall & skin

31

What is the periople?

Cuticle-like covering of hoof that makes it shiny

32

What are the components of the hoof wall?

coronet
Periople

33

What is the white line of the hoof?

Junction of hoof wall and sole

34

What is the frog?

Tissue located in ground surface

35

What are the projections of the corium called?

Laminae
Pappillae

36

What are the primary adherence structures of the hoof wall?

Laminae

37

What acts as the template for hoof wall, sole and frog tissue?

Papillae

38

How does the papillae act as the template for hoof growth?

Cause epidermis to form tubules and intertubular horn

39

How does laminae act as the main adherence structure?

Increases surface area for hoof wall adhesion

40

Are laminae present in both epidermis (hoof) and dermis (corium)?

Yes

41

What are the 2 divisions of laminae?

Primary
Secondary

42

What is the difference between primary and secondary laminae?

Primary is visible
Secondary is microscopic

43

Where do primary epidermal laminae connect?

Inner surface of stratum medium

44

Where do secondary laminae attach?

To primary laminae

45

What type of dermal layers are secondary laminae composed of?

Stratum basale
Stratum spinosum

46

What function does the stratum externum (periople) provide?

Waterproofing

47

What is the stratum medium?

Makes majority of hoof wall

48

What is the stratum internum?

Forms epidermal laminae

49

What is the weak area of the hoof wall?

White line

50

Where does cell division occur for hoof wall?

Stratum basale in corium of coronary band

51

How much do hooves grow per month?

1/4 - 1/2"

52

If a defect occurs at the coronary region, how long does it take to grow out completely?

8-12 months

53

What is the coffin bone of the horse?

3rd phalanx

54

Separation of the hoof wall from the 3rd phalanx (laminitis) is due to loss of normal function of what?

Laminae

55

What is the difference in cell division of tubules and intertubular horn?

Tubules: cells divide on papillae

Intertubular horn: cells divide between papillae

56

What is the main difference between claws/nails & hooves?

Claws/nails do not have secondary laminae

57

What is the main difference between bovine and equine hooves?

Bovine hooves don't have laminae

58

Are there any large difference between the way antler/horns grow and hooves?

Not much
Antlers are shed every year
Antlers are covered in skin