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Flashcards in CONSONANTS DEEP Deck (34):
1

/p/

OBSTRUENT
Voiceless bilabial stop
Anterior
Velopharyngeal port closed
◦Obstruction in oral cavity
◦Release/aspiration/plosive
Developed early by children

2

/b/

OBSTRUENT
Voiced bilabial stop
Anterior
Velopharyngeal port closed
◦Obstruction in oral cavity
◦Release/aspiration/plosive
Developed early by children

3

/t/

OBSTRUENT
Voiceless (lingua) alveolar stop
Anterior
Velopharyngeal port closed
◦Obstruction in oral cavity
◦Release/aspiration/plosive
developed early
MOST COMMON CONSONANT
Intervocalic /t/ ALLOPHONES

4

/d/

OBSTRUENT
Voiced (lingua-) alveolar stop
Anterior
Velopharyngeal port closed
◦Obstruction in oral cavity
◦Release/aspiration/plosive

5

/k/

Voiceless (lingua) velar stop OBSTRUENT
Posterior

6

/g/

Voiced (lingua) velar stop OBSTRUENT
Posterior

7

/f/

Voiceless labiodental fricative
STRIDENT
/f/ early (3& 4 yrs);
Substitutes: [for severe] /p/ & /b/
Compare with Spanish bilabial fricative b sounding like v

8

/v/

Voiced labiodental fricative
STRIDENT
/v/ developed later
Substitutes: [for severe] /p/ & /b/
Compare with Spanish bilabial fricative b sounding like v

9

/θ/

ex:Thumb
Voiceless (inter) dental fricative
Tip of tongue approximates edge of inner surface of upper front teeth
◦Air stream emitted between teeth & tongue—creating slight audible friction

10

/ð/

ex:This
Voiced (inter) dental fricative
Tip of tongue approximates edge of inner surface of upper front teeth
◦Air stream emitted between teeth & tongue—creating slight audible friction

11

/s/

Voiceless alveolar fricative
SIBILANT+STRIDENT
Velopharyngeal closure/approximation
Tongue tip up OR down
Sides of tongue rest against molars

12

/z/

Voiced alveolar fricative
SIBILANT+STRIDENT
Velopharyngeal closure/approximation
Tongue tip up OR down
Sides of tongue rest against molars

13

/ʃ/

Voiceless palatal fricative
SIBILANT+STRIDENT
Velopharyngeal port closed
◦Sides of tongue against upper molars
◦Broad front surface of tongue raised toward palate behind alveolar ridge
◦Opening broader & farther back than for /s, z/
◦Lips usually slightly rounded

14

/ʒ/

Voiced palatal fricative
SIBILANT+STRIDENT
Velopharyngeal port closed
◦Sides of tongue against upper molars
◦Broad front surface of tongue raised toward palate behind alveolar ridge
◦Opening broader & farther back than for /s, z/
◦Lips usually slightly rounded

15

/h/

Voiceless glottal fricative
Mastered early
Deviations: omissions
Solution push tummy to get the air to come out

16

/tʃ/

ex:teacher
◦Substitutions:
Mild: /ts,dz/
Severe /t,d/
Voiceless palatal affricative
Stop + Fricative Release
◦ONE phoneme [not 2]
◦Velopharyngeal port closed
Sides of tongue approximate upper molars
◦Tongue tip back of alveolar ridge
◦Airstream held/compressed in oral cavity; then forced thru narrow constriction formed by tongue & palate

17

/dʒ/

ex:edge
◦Substitutions:
Mild: /ts,dz/
Severe /t,d/
Voiced palatal affricative
Stop + Fricative Release
◦ONE phoneme [not 2]
◦Velopharyngeal port closed
Sides of tongue approximate upper molars
◦Tongue tip back of alveolar ridge
◦Airstream held/compressed in oral cavity; then forced thru narrow constriction formed by tongue & palate

18

/m/

Voiced bilabial nasal
Velopharyngeal port open going out from nose
◦Oral cavity closed off
◦Voiced
Acquired/mastered early

19

/n/

Voiced alveolar nasal
Velopharyngeal port open going out from nose
◦Oral cavity closed off
◦Voiced
Acquired/mastered early

20

/ŋ/

Voiced velar nasal
Velopharyngeal port open going out from nose
◦Oral cavity closed off
◦Voiced
Acquired/mastered early
/ŋ/for /N/ common (e.g., “runnin”)

21

/w/

Velopharyngeal port closed
Narrowing of vocal tract initially
◦Voiced
◦Syllable-initial only [canNOT end a syllable or a word with a glide)
◦Native English speakers often “Glide” between vowels
Common substitution for liquids, especially w. /j/harder to get

22

/j/

ex: yellow
Velopharyngeal port closed
Narrowing of vocal tract initially
◦Voiced
◦Syllable-initial only [canNOT end a syllable or a word with a glide)
◦Native English speakers often “Glide” between vowels
Common substitution for liquids, especially w /j/harder to get

23

/l/

Voiced alveolar liquid
Velopharyngeal port closed
Prevocalic [consonantal]
Postvocalic [vowel like] half vowel
◦Alveolar /l/ [lateral]
Gliding” (substitution of a glide (/w/ or /j/) & “Vowelization”  half consonant/half vowel extremely common in preschool years particularly for (r)

24

/r/

Voiced (lingua)palatal liquid
Velopharyngeal port closed
Prevocalic [consonantal]
Postvocalic [vowel like] half vowel
◦Alveolar /l/ [lateral]
Gliding” (substitution of a glide (/w/ or /j/) & “Vowelization”  half consonant/half vowel extremely common in preschool years particularly for (r)

25

/s l n d/

alveolars



26

/ʒ dʒ/

voiced palatal

27

/r l/

liquids

28

/r ʒ tʃ j/

palatals

29

/k ŋ/

velar

30

/z t d/

alveolar

31

/p b m w/

bilabial

32

/f v s z ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ /

strident

33

/g d n ð ʒ /

?

34

/l m j/

?