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Flashcards in test 1 respiration Deck (31):
1

how do we make speech?

By simultaneously, cooperatively and coordinately using respiration, phonation, resonation and articulation

2

supraglottal structures

3 cavities: oral (lips, teeth,alveolar ridge, hard/soft palate, tongue & mandible) nasal and pharyngeal

3

ORAL CAVITY/lips function

(external boundaries) receive and contain food/fluids
vowels: rounded-neutral-spread
consonants: labial, bilabial (p,b)labiodental (v,f)

4

ORAL CAVITY/teeth

cutting and grinding food
consonants: dental/interdental (letting out airstream) th,

5

ORAL CAVITY/alveolar ridge/gum

contains teeth
important surface for tongue contact in swallowing
vowels: front vowel formation
consonant: alveolar (t, s, l, n)

6

ORAL CAVITY/hard palate

(bone tissue, covered by mucuous)
divides oral &nasal cavities, contains food in oral cavity, provides upper surface for swallowing
vowels: oral cavity sound shaping
consonant: requires tongue to be positioned near or move in relation to the palate f, z, tch, dj, r, j

7

ORAL CAVITY/soft palate

forms roof of mouth (covered by mucuous membrane of hard palate)
prevent food/ fluid to enter nasal cavity
crucial to speech production
nasal consonants: m,n, ng
velar consonants (closed): k, g, ng

8

ORAL CAVITY/tongue

muscle, connective tissue & covered by mucuous membrane
-structure: root, apex, dorsum, septum & frenum)
-direct food to back of cavity
vowels: shapes sound
-consonants: all but (m, p, b, f, v)

9

ORAL CAVITY/mandible


forms the base of the tongue & house the mandibular teeth & chewing
vowels: shape the sound
consonants: m, p, b, f, v (without tongue movement)

10

NASAL CAVITY-function

receive inhaled air, filter it, warm it, and directs it toward the trachea
-speech resonnance

11

PHARYNGEAL CAVITIES/ throat

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngeopharynx
receives food for swallowing & moving it toward oesophagus & stomach
channel air from respiration between nose & mouth, trachea & lungs
speech: resonating chamber for voice

12

LARYNX AND SUBGLOTTAL STRUCTURES

made of cartillage and muscle
prevent food/fluids from entering trachea
sound: voiced (vocal fold vibration) & voiceless (vocal fold abducted)

13

LARYNX COMPONENTS:

cricoid, arytenoid, thyroid cartillage , hyoid bone, vocal folds (phonation) & glottis

14

SUBLARYNGEAL STRUCTURES

trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, rib cage & diaphram

15

structures associated

bilabial: lips
glottal: glotis
pharyngeal: pharynx
alveolar: gum
velar: soft palate
palatal: soft/ hard palate

16

respiration in speech

air source for oral communication

17

respiration structure

lungs, bronchi, alveoli and trachea

18

respiration muscles

Diaphragm, external/internal intercostal muscles

19

respiration process


breathing
inhalation
exhalation

20

breathing

inhale, exhale, oxygen & carbon dioxide exchange occurs in the lungs alveoli

21

Inhalation

bring air into the lungs
contraction of diagram
expansion of thoracic space
co-occur upward and outward rib cage

22

exhalation

release air from the lungs
combination of 3 factors (gravity, elastic properties of cartillage and lung tissue & relaxation of the muscle of inhalation)
phase that provides the flow for breath for speech

23

phonation

interuption of outgoing airstream by rapid rythmic closing and opening of the glottis with vocal folds

24

fundamental frequency

rate at which the glottis opens and closes, measured in Hz

25

Hz averages

men: 125 hz
women: 220Hz
changes due to vocal fold tension & sublgottal air pressure

26

harmonic

systematic pattern vibration that is repeated at a regular time intervals

27

intensity

loudness of the voice
due to increased subglottal pressure, vocal fold control that allows rapid, firm, longer closure and expansion of the vocal fold for reduced subglottal pressure

28

resonation

occurs as the vibrating airstream passes through the paryngeal, oral and nasal cavities

29

voice quality

produced by a combination of a person's habitual F0 range blended with the overtone s or subdued by resonation

30

influence of resonant

overal length of vocal tract lenght of oral nasal and pharyngeal cavities
habitual muscle tensing size of the tongue in relation to oral cavity
moistness & softness of the cavity walls
relative opening of the jaw & lips in speech
velopharyngeal port openess

31

articulation

shaping of the voiced/unvoiced breath stress to form speech sound
ex: m, n, l, r