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Flashcards in exam 3 phonology Deck (41):
1

accent

stress applied to a syllable in a word

2

aspiration

pertains to air escape [for example /p/ can be produced either with or without aspiration

3

coarticulation

related, overlapping articulatory influences that occur as sounds are produced in connected speech

4

contiguous

assimilation between phonemes adjacent to each other

5

consonant cluster

2 or more contiguous/juxtaposed consonants in the same syllable ex: star

6

dentalization

shift in place of consonant articulation from alveolar to dental due to presence of adjacent dental phoneme /θ/ /ð/

7

diphthongs


consisting of 2 vowels produced consecutively in the same syllable by moving the articulators smoothly from the position of one to the other (3 "true" diphtongs)

8

distinctive features

every consonant differs from every other consonant by at least one distinctive feature
-characteristics (acoustic & articulatory)
-binary (plus or minus)
-phoneme ( a bundle of features)

9

elision

one or a few consonants or omitted due to coarticulation

10

emphasis

stress applied to a word in phrase

11

stress

pointing up or drawing special attention to speech unit

12

SODA

Substitutions, Omissions, Distortions, Additions
Traditional classification for each sound error

13

Homorganic

made in the same place or with the same articulator position

14

intonation

pitch variation within a phrase

15

open syllable

syllable ending in a vowel

16

closed syllable

syllable ending in a consonant

17

diacritics


specialized markings that indicate modifications/variations in productions/pronunciation

18

graphemes

written or printed letters

19

digraphs

two graphemes/alphabet letters yielding one phoneme

20

juncture

transition point between words and phrases

21

ligature

curved underlining to indicate phrasing

22

morphemes

smallest meaningful unit (could be more than one sound) that carries semantic interpretation

23

orthography

the spelling and written system of a language and its study

24

phone

any sound that can be produced by the human track

25

phoneme

part of a group/family of similar speech sounds that are PERCEIVED within a language as the SAME speech sounds
vary from language to language

26

allophone

one sound variants within a phoneme (family); does not change the meaning

27

phonetics

pertains to speech sounds, including the scientific study & also the transcription of speech sound production (acoustic, physiological, experimental &clinical)

28

phonology

sound SYSTEM and RULES of a language (developmental & clinical)

29

metaphonology

reflecting on the sounds of a language

30

obstruents

consonant with closure of vocal tract, stopping/ interfering with airflow: Stops, Fricatives, and Affricates.
have Voiceless consonants & voiced cognates

31

sonorants

consonant produced with voiced airflow include Liquids, Nasals, and Glides [and also Vowels]

32

rate

the number of syllables or words per unit of time

33

resonance

Resonance the quality and location where sounds are produced

34

syllable


smallest unit of speech production, requires vowel diphthong or syllabic consonant

35

syllabic consonant

consonant that serves the function as syllable nuclei ex: m, l, n

36

speech rhythm

general term reffering to the combined aspects of accent, emphasis, phrasing, intonation and rate

37

speech phrase

continuous utterance, bounded by silent intervals

38

segmental

referring to phoneme level of speech

39

suprasegmental

speech features over and above phoneme segments, especially aspects of speech rhythm

40

independent analysis

compares child’s productions with adults

41

relational analysis

based only on child’s productions (i.e., not compared with adult)