vocab test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in vocab test 2 Deck (41):
1

Affricates

consonants that begin as a stop; release as a fricative

2

Allophones

one sound variants within a phoneme (family); does not change the meaning

3

alveolars

refers to upper alveolar ridge

4

articulation

the process of producing/shaping speech sounds

5

bilabials

contact of upper & lower lips

6

consonant clusters

2 or more contiguous/juxtaposed consonants in the same syllable ex: star

7

dentals

refer to teeth

8

diacritic markings

specialized markings that indicate modifications/variations in productions/pronunciation

9

diagraphs

two graphemes/alphabet letters yielding one phoneme

10

diphtongs

consisting of 2 vowels produced consecutively in the same syllable by moving the articulators smoothly from the position of one to the other (3 "true" diphtongs)

11

distinctive features

every consonant differs from every other consonant by at least one distinctive feature
-characteristics (acoustic & articulatory)
-binary (plus or minus)
-phoneme ( a bundle of features)

12

fricatives

produced with audible friction as a result of narrowing of the vocal tracts at some point

13

glides


consonant characterized by a rapid movement of the articulators from a high front /back tongue arch to the vowel that follows

14

graphemes

written or printed letters

15

interdentals

placement of the tongue top between the upper and lower front teeth

16

labials

refers to lips

17

labiodentals

contact of lower lip & upper front teeth

18

lingual

refers to tongue

19

metaphonology

reflecting on the sounds of a language

20

morphemes

smallest meaningful unit (could be more than one sound) that carries semantic interpretation

21

morphophonology

rules as to how to pronounce past tense morpheme "ed"

22

nasals

produced with the lowering of the soft palate & closure of oral cavity
+lowered velum for airflow through nasal cavity

23

liquids

produced with tongue acting as an obstacle to outgoing voiced airstream.

24

obstruents

consonant with closure of vocal tract, stopping/ interfering with airflow: Stops, Fricatives, and Affricates.
have Voiceless consonants & voiced cognates

25

orthography

the spelling and written system of a language and its study

26

phones

any sound that can be produced by the human track

27

phonemes

part of a group/family of similar speech sounds that are PERCEIVED within a language as the SAME speech sounds
vary from language to language

28

palatals

refers to hard palate

29

phonetics

pertains to speech sounds, including the scientific study & also the transcription of speech sound production (acoustic, physiological, experimental &clinical)

30

phonology

sound SYSTEM and RULES of a language (developmental & clinical)

31

phonotactics

rule specifying where sound can occur and how sounds can be combined in a language.

32

sonorants

consonant produced with voiced airflow include Liquids, Nasals, and Glides [and also Vowels]
Sonorants are all VOICED and more "singable"

33

stops

complete obstruction of outgoing airstream by articulators, a buildup of intraoral pressure & a release (air may/may not be released)

34

syllables

smallest unit of speech production; requires vowel, dipthong or syllabic consonant; Open?closed syllables

35

velars

refers to soft palate

36

virgule

broad phonemic transcription
slash marks, used for sound transcription

37

vocalic

refer to being part vowel --for example, word final (r) is vocalic; part consonant and part vowel

38

voiced

phoneme produced with vocal fold vibration

vibration of the adducted vocal folds in the larynx

39

voiceless

phoneme produced without vocal fold vibration

40

vowels

speech sounds with an unobstructed vocal track (14 in english)

41

consonant sequences

2 or more consonant, including those that cross syllable boundaries ex: basket