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Flashcards in exam 3 =phonological deviation Deck (35):
1

Fronting





[posterior-->anterior]
gum --> [dʌm] (i.e., "key" becomes "tey").
velars /k,g,ŋ/ are replaced by more anterior consonants
/k/ replaced by /t/
/g/ replaced by /d/
/ŋ/ replaced by /n/

2

Backing

[anterior-->posterior] tea-> [ki]
front sounds is substituted for a sound produced further back-daddy --> "gaggy"
anterior consonants are replaced by velars /k,g,ŋ/
/t/ replaced by /k/
/d/ replaced by /g/
/n/ replaced by /ŋ/

3

Stopping

leaf->[dip]
process in which stops are substituted by by fricatives (continuant resonant)
(manner of artic. change) the replacement of fricatives or affricates with a stop sound, "deep" for "jeep"
substitution of a "t, d, p, b, k" or "g" for "s, z, sh, f, v" or "th" (i.e., "zipper" becomes "dipper").

4

Gliding


replacing a liquid /l/ /ɹ/ sound or any other consonants with a glide /w/ or /j/]
rock-> [wɑk]
"love" -->"wove" "run.-->wun"
process that affects liquids

5

vowelization

when a vowel is substituted by a vocalic liquid (affecting postvocalic liquids)
liquids /l/ or /ɹ/ are replaced by vowels
zipper-> [zɪpʊ]
hair -->"Hay-uh"
people --> "peopo"

6

vowel neutralization


syllabic liquid used instead of a vowel
simple --> simpo
able --> abuh
paper --> papo
table --> tabo
yellow -> [jʌlʌ]

7

deaffrication


changing "ch" or "j" for another sound
chin --> "sin"
t͡ʃ -->ʃ

8

depalatalization



substituting an alveolar fricative s,z, for a palatal fricative sh and j (measure)
cheek --> teek ,
matches -->matsiz,
judge -->judz,
jane -->dane
shoe --> sue

9

How many Assimilations processes?

(6)
labial
nasal
velar
alveolar
palatal
liquid

10

labial assimilation
[regressive & progressive]



(Place of Artic)changing of a non labial sound to a labial (b,p,m,w) due to another labial sound in a word.
pen --> peb
smoke --> /fmoʊk/
regressive:later phoneme affects an earlier phoneme
ex: spoon-->[fpum]
progressive : earlier phoneme affects later phoneme

11

nasal assimilation



(Manner of Artic)
non-nasal sound is produced as a nasal sound due to the presence of a nasal phoneme within the same word,
"candy -->"nanny"
thumb-->[nʌm]

12

velar assimilation




(Place of Artic) a velar is substituted for a non-velar consonant because of a nearby velar sound
"dog" --> "gog"
duck-->[gʌk]

13

alveolar assimilation




(Place of Artic)changing a non alveolar sound to an alveolar (t,d,n,l,s,z).
soup --> suit
door --> dod
toss --> tot
cat-->[tæt]

14

liquid assimilation


liquid + liquid / non-liquid + liquid
yellow-->[lɛlo]

15

palatal assimilation


juice-->[dʒuʃ]

16

major substitutions

stopping
fronting
backing
gliding
liquid vowelization
vowel neutralization
affrication/deaffrication
palatalization/depalatalization
glottal replacement

17

syllable structure (context related) 7

Metathesis
Migration
Coalescence
Reduplication
Epenthesis
Diminutive
Cluster Creation

18

Metathesis




Metathesis occurs when two consonants within a syllable are placed in a different order. There is a reordering of the sequence of consonants (C) and vowels (V) within a syllable
mask-->[mæks]

19

Migration

When a consonant is moved to a different position in a word
smoke-->[moʊks]

20

Coalescence



replacement of 2 consonants by one new consonants that features the original 2

last--> "lath"
smoke-->[foʊk]
would you --> /wʊdʒu/
miss you --> / miʃu/

21

reduplication



Repetition of a complete (or incomplete) syllable
water -->/wæwæ/
bottle -->/bæbæ/
basket-->[bæbæ]
incomplete ex: music box -->/mumubɑ/

22

Epenthesis

A vowel is misplaced or inserted in a word, usually the schwa
ex: black --> "balæk"

23

Diminutive

sheep-->[Sipi]
horse --> horsie

24

cluster creation

1

25

How many Voicing Alterations are there?

(3)
Vocalic Voicing
Prevocalic Devoicing
Postvocalic Devoicing

26

Singleton Consonant Omission

truck--> "tuck"
school -->"sool"
When a consonant is omitted

27

Consonant cluster reduction

Cluster reduction occurs when one or more consonants in a cluster is omitted.

28

Glottal replacement

Ex: gun--> ?un
boat-> [boʊ?]
a glottal stop is substituted for any phoneme
If seen repeatedly, possibly indicates improperly working Velum or history of cleft palate

29

What is an assimilation process?

one sound changes to become more like another sound
Can impact Place of Artic., Manner of Artic. and Voicing

30

What is a substitution process?

when one class of sounds is replaced for another class of sounds

31

affrication


affricate is substituted for a fricative or a consonant cluster, or when a stop is added before a continuant sound
sheet --> cheat / ʃ --> t͡ʃ/

32

palatalization

a nonpalatal consonant is replaced by a palatal consonant
see -->she

33

Prevocalic voicing

when a voiceless prevocalic is replaced by a voiced consonant
cup--> [gʌp]
fish --> /vɪʃ/ or /bɪʃ/

34

Prevocalic devoicing

when a prevocalic voiced consonant is replaced by a voiceless consonant
ex: gum--> [kʌm] or / tʌm/ (also fronting)

35

Post vocalic devoicing

postvocalic voiced consonant is replaced by a voiceless consonant
ex: page--> [peɪtʃ]