Flashcards in exam 3 =phonological deviation Deck (35):
gum --> [dʌm] (i.e., "key" becomes "tey").
velars /k,g,ŋ/ are replaced by more anterior consonants
/k/ replaced by /t/
/g/ replaced by /d/
/ŋ/ replaced by /n/
[anterior-->posterior] tea-> [ki]
front sounds is substituted for a sound produced further back-daddy --> "gaggy"
anterior consonants are replaced by velars /k,g,ŋ/
/t/ replaced by /k/
/d/ replaced by /g/
/n/ replaced by /ŋ/
process in which stops are substituted by by fricatives (continuant resonant)
(manner of artic. change) the replacement of fricatives or affricates with a stop sound, "deep" for "jeep"
substitution of a "t, d, p, b, k" or "g" for "s, z, sh, f, v" or "th" (i.e., "zipper" becomes "dipper").
replacing a liquid /l/ /ɹ/ sound or any other consonants with a glide /w/ or /j/]
"love" -->"wove" "run.-->wun"
process that affects liquids
when a vowel is substituted by a vocalic liquid (affecting postvocalic liquids)
liquids /l/ or /ɹ/ are replaced by vowels
people --> "peopo"
syllabic liquid used instead of a vowel
simple --> simpo
able --> abuh
paper --> papo
table --> tabo
yellow -> [jʌlʌ]
changing "ch" or "j" for another sound
chin --> "sin"
substituting an alveolar fricative s,z, for a palatal fricative sh and j (measure)
cheek --> teek ,
shoe --> sue
How many Assimilations processes?
[regressive & progressive]
(Place of Artic)changing of a non labial sound to a labial (b,p,m,w) due to another labial sound in a word.
pen --> peb
smoke --> /fmoʊk/
regressive:later phoneme affects an earlier phoneme
progressive : earlier phoneme affects later phoneme
(Manner of Artic)
non-nasal sound is produced as a nasal sound due to the presence of a nasal phoneme within the same word,
(Place of Artic) a velar is substituted for a non-velar consonant because of a nearby velar sound
"dog" --> "gog"
(Place of Artic)changing a non alveolar sound to an alveolar (t,d,n,l,s,z).
soup --> suit
door --> dod
toss --> tot
liquid + liquid / non-liquid + liquid
syllable structure (context related) 7
Metathesis occurs when two consonants within a syllable are placed in a different order. There is a reordering of the sequence of consonants (C) and vowels (V) within a syllable
When a consonant is moved to a different position in a word
replacement of 2 consonants by one new consonants that features the original 2
would you --> /wʊdʒu/
miss you --> / miʃu/
Repetition of a complete (or incomplete) syllable
incomplete ex: music box -->/mumubɑ/
A vowel is misplaced or inserted in a word, usually the schwa
ex: black --> "balæk"
horse --> horsie
How many Voicing Alterations are there?
Singleton Consonant Omission
When a consonant is omitted
Consonant cluster reduction
Cluster reduction occurs when one or more consonants in a cluster is omitted.
Ex: gun--> ?un
a glottal stop is substituted for any phoneme
If seen repeatedly, possibly indicates improperly working Velum or history of cleft palate
What is an assimilation process?
one sound changes to become more like another sound
Can impact Place of Artic., Manner of Artic. and Voicing
What is a substitution process?
when one class of sounds is replaced for another class of sounds
affricate is substituted for a fricative or a consonant cluster, or when a stop is added before a continuant sound
sheet --> cheat / ʃ --> t͡ʃ/
a nonpalatal consonant is replaced by a palatal consonant
when a voiceless prevocalic is replaced by a voiced consonant
fish --> /vɪʃ/ or /bɪʃ/
when a prevocalic voiced consonant is replaced by a voiceless consonant
ex: gum--> [kʌm] or / tʌm/ (also fronting)