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Flashcards in test 1 vocab Deck (37):
1

Define Phonetics

"speech sounds" Scientific study and transcription of speech sounds/phonemes of spoken language (acoustic, physiological, experimental & clinical)

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physiological phonetics

Learning how to make particular sounds

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Acoustic phonetics:

Study of the frequency and intensity of sound heard, while investigating how different alterations of speech signal affect the listener’s ability to understand what was said.

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clinical phonetics

transcription, working with people

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phone

Speech sound. Not meaningful/any sound made out of a the human vocal tract (mechanism)

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Phoneme

occurs when a phone is used to differentiate meaning in words (distinguishes words from each other). Part of group/family of similar speech sounds (allophones) that are PERCEIVED within a language as the SAME speech sound; phonemes vary from language to language (43 in english) ex: one

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allophone/allophonic variation

One of the sound variants within a phoneme (family), does NOT CHANGE THE MEANING. different pronunciation of a given sound based on the surrounding context. ex: butter, better, button

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morpheme

smallest meaningful UNIT in a language. carries semantic interpretation ( often more than 1 phonemes) ex: ed, es

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developmental phonology

how children are learning to talk/normal acquisition

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clinical phonology

has to do with disorders

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metaphonology

reflecting on and understanding of words. (very important for language acquisition). rhymes of words in a sentence.

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Orthograhy

writing (grqphemes & diagraphs). the spelling and writing system  of a language and its study

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graphemes:

written letters, spellings and rules

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diagraphs

2 letters combined making a phoneme

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Word

may contain more than one morpheme.

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Transliteration:

selecting alphabet letters to represent speech sounds

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Digraph

2 graphemes/alphabet letters yielding in 1 phoneme.

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Diacritic markings

specialized markings/symbols that indicate modification variations in production/ pronunciation i.e. dictionary

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IPA International Phonetic Alphabet

One symbol for EACH different speech sound  in all the world's languages

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Transcription

2 types:

  1. phonemic/broad -virgules  / /
  2. phonetic/narrow-brackets  [ ]

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phonotactic (rule)

specifyng where sounds can occur (in words or syllables in a language)  and how sounds can be combined in that language i.e. ng cannot start a word in english/ no stl word initial in English

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phonological

sound system(semantics) and a rules (syntax/grammar) of a language

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syllable

smallest unit in speech production; requires vowel, dipthong; or syllabic consonant. (open/closed syllables)

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homophones

words that sound the same but have different meaning. ex mail, male

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consonant

sounds produced by partly/completely obstructed vocal tract (24 in english)

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vowel

sounds produced by an unobstructed vocal tract (14 vowesl in english)

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dipthong

one phoneme consisting of 2 vowels produced consecutively in the same syllable  by moving the articulators smoothly from the position of one to the other (3 true diptongs & 2 alternate diphtongs)

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grapheme

written or printed letter (26 in english) alphabet letters

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cognate

pair of words that differ by voicing ex: p b; s z

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morpho phonological rules

rules for how to pronunce past tense morpheme ex: ed or plurals Ex:s, z

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phonological rule

formal way of showing a sound change ( substitution rule that captures the devoicing of word final) ex. s to z

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consonant singleton

consonant surrounded by vowels/diphtongs/or silence

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consonant clusters

ex:cc, ccc--> 2 or more contiguous/juxtaposed consonants in the same syllable

When reading clusters, each letter within the cluster is pronounced individually

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consonant sequences

2 or more contiguous consonants, including those that cross syllable boundaries (can include consonant cluster)

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Glides

ex: j, w . prevocalic/must precede a vowel. Consonant characterized by the rapid movement of the articulators from a high front or high back tongue arch to the vowel that follows.

However we CANNOT END a syllable or word with a glide

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Affricates

/tʃ/ /dʒ/ consonant that begin as a  stop  and release as a  fricative ⇒2 components, one phoneme

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Minimal Pairs/contrast:

Words that differ by one phoneme ex: bit & hit; bit & bite