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Flashcards in mutliculturism Deck (33):
1

by 2050

Hispanic group :25%
Pacific island and Asian: 8%
Blacks: 14.6%
White: 50.1%
Others: 5.3%

2

what percentage of children speak a language different than english at home?

18 %

3

anglo-european perspectives

-Children are equal partners in the communication process
-Driven by timelines, competition, and the fostering of individualism as well as privacy

4

Hispanic Perspectives

-Taught to be respectful of adults
-Not interrupt conversations
-Children don’t join adults’ gathering activities

5

African-American Perspectives

-Avoiding appearance
-Not address individual by his/her name
-Speakers maintain eye contact more directly when speaking than listening
More gestures
-Older persons are held in respect
-Not always adhere to strict timelines

6

Asian-American and Pacific Islander Perspectives

-Parental grandparents receive the highest level of authority and respect
-Infants receive a great deal of attention
-More discipline is imposed as the child grows up.
-Verbal praise is uncommon
-Value freedom of silence
-Maintain a greater distance

7

Native American Perspectives

-Self-reliant
-Children learn from their parents by observation
-Avoiding eye contact and not asking direct questions shows respect

8

Assessment Procedures for CLD Children
Pre-assessment consideration

- length of residence in US
- type of previous educational programs
- type of previous literacy activities
-type of previous assessments
-Comparing with siblings and peers
-Interpreter/translator

9

Should the student be assessed in one or both languages?

-The student responds in native language most of time when spoken to by family
-Students can understand the home language, but appropriate responses alternate between the home lge & English
-student enrolled in a bilingual program (3yrs)

10

When there are no tests available in the student’s language

-Assess the students with a set of English tests
-Request translator during 2nd session
-Re-administer item missed in student’s lge
-Assure the level if translated items matched the student’s level
-Norms should never be used
-A qualitative description is appropriate
-Supplement with informal measures
E.g., follow the oral directions or conversation with I/T
-plan the topics or methods in advance

11

Some considerations

-Phonology: the influence of dialect needs to avoid a misdiagnosis
-Verbal output (oral language expression): experiences and cultural differences need to be considered.
-Vocabulary & concepts: describe & compare the type of vocabulary used by student in each context across languages
- Caution needs to be exercised when interpreting the results

12

Intervention Issues for CLD Populations 1

-Identify elements to be learned & demonstrate with examples
-Teach specific strategies & apply in multiple ways
-Meaningful and relevant activities
-Explicit instruction in word decoding & spelling
-Regular students benefit from strategies for LLD

13

Intervention Issues for CLD Populations 2




-Deviant or dialectal differences
-Intervention take place in two places, if possible
-Auditory training

14

Chinese

-1.4 billion people spoken
-Taiwan, China, Singapore, Malaysia, other parts of Southeast Asia, other countries
94% population →Mandarin
-Different dialect: Yue, Cantonese, Taiwanese, Hakka…

15

Chinese in United States

-2.5million people speak Chinese at home
States with the highest percentage of Chinese speakers : California, New York, and Hawaii

16

Chinese V.S. English















Chinese writing system
Over 85000 words, 3500 words used in daily life
Picture v.s art (EX: 山, 日, 口)
Traditional characters: 龍(dragon).龜(turtle)
Simplified character:龙(dragon).龟(turtle)

Morphology: no plurals, no tense,
no auxiliary, no comparison,
no different between subject
and object

17

chinese vs english 2

Syntax: low structural complexity of words

Pragmatics: no praise; indirect request; avoid direct eye contact; highly respectful for authority, professional, elders; circular; collectivism






18

Chinese V.S. English 3


Phonology:
1700 different types of syllables
Monosyllabic: one syllable represents one word
C+V (EX: pi)
C+V+C (EX: pan)
V+C(EX: uo)
V(EX: i)
More open syllable rather than closed
Tonal language

19

Consonant Phoneme (Manner)


Aspirated vs. unaspirated (EX: pi vs. ph i)
pi(force)
phi (chop)

20

Consonant Phoneme (Placement)

Retroflex: tʂ, tʂh, ʂ, ʐ
Alveolo-palatal: tɕ, tɕh, ɕ
ti(low);
thi(kick);

21

alveolar, fricative, voiceless

ɕ:j(placement)+si(sound)

22

retroflex, fricative, voiceless

ʂ:r(manner)+s(sound)

Practice: ʂu(book)

23

alveolar, affricate, voiceless

tɕ : jee
tɕh:cheese
Practice: tɕi(chicken)
tɕhi(seven);

24

Tone

first tone : high level
second tone: High rising
Third tone: low dipping
fourth tone: high falling
neutral: flat, no emphasis

25

Phonological Pattern(deviations)
Word/syllable structures

No syllables omissions(no multisyllabic words)
No consonant clusters or sequences omissions
Singletons omission (prevocalic & postvocalic)

26

Phonological Pattern(deviations)Consonant Category Deficiencies

Stopping ( s →t)
Unaspiration (bh→b)
Backing (t→k)
Deaffrication(ts→t)

27

Internal modulation

Triphthong--change the sound
i +an → iæn
i + ən → in
i + əŋ → iŋ
u+ əŋ → uŋ
y+ an → yæn
y+ ən → yn
y+ əŋ → yʊŋ



28

practice

ni xau (How are you?)
xau pan(You are great!)
wo ai ni (I love you.)
ɕiɛ ɕiɛ ni (Thank you!)
tsai tɕian (Goodbye!)



29

Phoneme Study

Wang(1973); Chang & Cheng (1974)
90% correct
Before 3:0 p, ph, t, th, k, kh , n, x
After 6:0 ʐ
Zheng(2003)
70% correct
Before3:0 p,n
After6:0 tʂ, tʂh ʂ, ʐ, s
zhuo(2008)
90%correct
3:0 p, m, t, th, k, kh , x, ʐ
After 6: tʂ, ʂ
Varying results in different investigation




30

Phonology Pattern Study

Chen(2011)
Typical developing children (>5%)
3:0-3:11: lateralization, unaspiration, affrication, stopping, backing, medial vowel deletion, frication
4:0-4:11: lateralization, backing, stopping, medial vowel deletion, unaspiration
5:0-6:11: lateralization, unaspiration, medial vowel deletion

31

phonology: Children with Speech Sound Difficulty

Final consonant deletion, diphthong simplification,stopping, affrication, frication, unaspiration, lateralization, backing, medial vowel deletion

32

Phonology Pattern Study: Zhuo(2008)

Typical developing children (3:0-6:11) >5%
Stopping, bilabial stopping, affrication, aspiration, unaspiration, unretroflex, lateralization, backing, x-backing, consonant deletion, /i/ addition
Varying results in different investigation

33

Phonology Pattern Study: Xiao(2007)



Typical developing children (3:0-6:11) >2times
3:0-6:11: Stopping, affrication, unaspiration, unretroflex, backing
5:0-6:11: lateralization
Varying results in different investigation