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Flashcards in Core Counseling Attributes Deck (123)
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Emotional cutoff:

occurs when an individual deals with conflict by reducing contact with the other person.


The Masters and Johnson approach:

was based on the belief that many people are too critical of their own sexual performance, leading to dysfunction. Therefore, their approach was to implement strategies to change the self-evaluation taking place.


If an individual threatens to kill himself; what is the first thing the counselor should do?

counselor should perform a risk assessment to determine whether there is imminent danger to the student. If the counselor determines that the student is actively suicidal, then measures should be taken to ensure his safety, such as hospitalization.


Cultural encapsulation:

occurs when an individual holds a narrow viewpoint and refuses to take other perspectives or viewpoints into consideration. This often leads to stereotyping of other people who come from different backgrounds.


Androgyny refers to:

the existence of both male and female physical characteristics, and some counselors provide androgynous counseling to help clients uncover both male and female characteristics on emotional and psychological levels.


Sandra Bem's Sex-Role Inventory found that:

about 30 percent of children and college students are androgynous


Teenage suicide:

is a widespread public health problem; it is the third-leading cause of death among 10- to 24-year-olds.

Girls do tend to attempt suicide more often than boys, but boys are more successful and commit 80 percent of suicides. Though about 4,500 adolescents kill themselves every year, this rate has declined in recent years.


Groups that are greatest risk of teen suicide?

At greatest risk of suicide in this age group are American Indian and Alaska Native youth


Race :

refers to biological differences, such as physical features, that people use to differentiate minority and majority groups.



refers to the language, practices, and beliefs of a group of people. Ethnicity is usually regionally or culturally based, whereas individuals of the same race may live in separate areas of the world and have drastically different cultural experiences.


According to Strong's social influence model of counseling:

the client may view the counselor as being the expert, in that the counselor has a special set of skills and experience; attractive, in that the client wants to gain the counselor's approval; and trustworthy, in that the counselor is seen as caring and wanting to help. The counselor is generally not seen as authoritative, which refers to the right to exercise power over someone else.


Worldviews define how:

individuals perceive their relationships to other individuals, institutions, objects, and the environment. Our attitudes, values, and beliefs make up our worldviews and affect how we interact with others, the decisions we make, how we interpret events, and how we behave.


Emic worldviews:

refer to the belief that individuals and groups should be helped using their specific cultural lens.


Etic worldviews:

in contrast, refer to the belief that there is a global understanding of humanity that can be applied to all individuals.


Child maltreatment can refer:

to physical, emotional, psychological, or sexual abuse as well as neglect. Those children who are most at risk come from families under significant stress, such as single-parent families and those with few financial resources.

lower-income families are at greater risk of child maltreatment than middle-class families, and families with two caregivers are less likely to engage in child maltreatment than those with a single parent.



refers to desirable clients and stands for Young, Attractive, Verbal, Intelligent, and Successful.

William Schofield in his 1964 book Psychotherapy: The Purchase of Friendship in which he claimed to have demonstrated that mental health professionals often have a positive bias towards clients exhibiting the YAVIS traits. 



stands for Quiet, Ugly, Old, Indigent, and Dissimilar.

William Schofield in his 1964 book Psychotherapy: The Purchase of Friendship in which he claimed to have demonstrated that mental health professionals often have a positive bias towards clients exhibiting the YAVIS traits. 


William Schofield in his 1964 book Psychotherapy: The Purchase of Friendship:

in which he claimed to have demonstrated that mental health professionals often have a positive bias towards clients exhibiting the YAVIS traits.

refers to desirable clients and stands for Young, Attractive, Verbal, Intelligent, and Successful.


The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) :

requires that all children between 3 and 21 be given free public education, that children with handicaps attending public school must be given an IEP (individualized education plan), that children with disabilities who attend private schools be eligible for special education services, and that children with handicaps be placed in the least restrictive environments possible. If a state meets the requirements of the law, IDEA also provides additional funds to serve eligible children from birth to age 2.


humanistic life outlook:

based on the humanistic perspective, focuses on the positive aspects of human behavior. emphasizes the client's ability to reach self-actualization. It is formed by a combination of formal education about various topics, such as Maslow's hierarchy of needs; observational learning experiences, which can help build empathy and understanding; and interpersonal interactions.


Prejudice refers to:

any preconceived judgments or opinions without sufficient knowledge, such as assuming that an individual is disrespectful and unmotivated based simply on his race and criminal background. Prejudice can be positive, but most often it is thought of as a negative phenomenon.


Percentage of Americans that identify as LGBT?



What age do children identify as being male or female?

by age 3


believe that if clients do not release the pain and anger associated with oppression, they will not be able to achieve freedom.

Hanna and Cardona


Counselors operating from a feminist therapy approach believe:

that gender is central to the therapeutic process, that women should be empowered, and that counselors should acknowledge the significance of the role of sociocultural influences. Clients should be seen in the context of their sociocultural environments rather than separate from those influences. Feminist therapists also believe that all clients are experts on themselves and their own experiences, that therapy can transform society as well as individuals, and that maladaptive symptoms are often types of survival strategies.


Studies show that members of lower-class neighborhoods tend to be:

generous and share resources, typically with family and members of their communities, while members of higher classes are able to meet their own wants and needs first. Lower social classes do tend to have less access to education, healthcare, and transportation than members of higher classes.


Racial/Cultural identity development model:

refers to a conceptual framework that helps counselors better understand clients who are of different cultures. There are five stages of development for individuals in the minority race or culture.


Racial/Cultural identity Development Model: First Stage

conformity, is characterized by identification with the majority.


Racial/Cultural identity Development Model: Second Stage

dissonance, is when the individual's self-concept is challenged and there is a conflict between appreciation and depreciation of self.


Racial/Cultural identity Development Model: Third Stage

resistance and immersion, is when the individual rejects the majority and accepts the minority views.


Racial/Cultural identity Development Model: Fourth Stage

introspection, follows the intense emotions of the resistance and immersion stage and is more focused on self-appreciation.


Racial/Cultural identity Development Model: Fifth Stage

integrative awareness, occurs when the individual can appreciate aspects of both the dominant and minority cultures.



refers to the phenomenon of a person with a particular cultural background losing his or her own original values and behaviors due to being absorbed into the dominant group. Assimilation occurs often in families with children, because the children are more readily exposed to and influenced by the majority culture than their parents; this can create conflict within the family system.



is the extent to which a person with a particular cultural background incorporates the values and beliefs of the dominant culture (rather than becoming completely absorbed by the dominant culture).


By 2050:

all minority groups combined will be larger than the non-Hispanic White population.


U.S. population is over age 65:



median age in the U.S.:

is about 37.8 (the oldest ever).


White privilege refers to:

the perception that many White individuals have that their lives are average and ideal. There are numerous advantages and entitlements that Whites experience, particularly White males, and these are often dismissed as part of the typical human experience.


Systematic Eclecticism:

an approach to counseling that acknowledges the importance of feelings, thoughts, behaviors, cultural experiences, and societal influences, then applies those that are most relevant to the client(s)



occurs when a person redirects some of their feelings or desires for another person to an entirely different person


Alfred Adler:

is known for his theory of how birth order can affect children throughout the lifespan. According to Adler, following the birth of a second child the older sibling will likely seek comfort from the father. The oldest child can become perfectionist and authoritative, yet can learn to bear responsibility and be helpful to others.


Known for his theory of how birth order can affect children throughout the lifespan.

Alfred Adler


According to Adler, following the birth of a second child the older sibling will likely:

seek comfort from the father.


Over the past few decades, marriage rates have decreased for several reasons:

More couples are now cohabiting instead of or before getting married. Cohabitation also leads to increased age of first marriage and a higher number of children born out of wedlock. Currently, over 40 percent of all children are born to unmarried women


Cultural pluralism refers to:

the large categories of people who may have special needs or concerns, such as women, gays and lesbians, children, racial groups, single-parent families, and many others.


Multicultural counseling aims to:

pay close attention to (and provide interventions that are in accordance with) the client's cultural beliefs, norms, and values. In order to be most effective with multicultural clients, counselors may need to be more deliberate about forming a positive rapport with the client by engaging in more small talk and sharing more personal information than they might with white clients.


Robert Carkhuff developed a five-point scale for:

rating counselors' responses depending on how empathetic the responses are, with Level 1 responses not attending to the client's affect at all and Level 5 responses adding significantly to the client's affect and meaning.


Which, male or female, most likely to seek out counseling?

Women, however, are more likely than men to seek out counseling, are generally more emotionally expressive than men, and are more susceptible to depression than men


Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:

occurs when individuals are expected to act a certain way, so circumstances are arranged that make it likely that those outcomes will occur. 



 is the process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events. Models to explain this process are called attribution theory


Reflection refers:

to the technique of repeating back to the client what he or she has said, but stressing the client's emotional and/or affective experiences. This counselor is emphasizing the client's feelings of frustration and discomfort while also helping the client to feel heard.



is similar to reflection in that it consists of repeating back to the client what he or she just said, but emphasizes the cognitive rather than the emotional message.



refers to either how authentically the counselor is communicating with the client, or how well the client's behaviors and beliefs match.



occurs when the counselor identifies differences between the client's verbal and nonverbal actions.


Society Expectations of Men:

to be emotionally stoic, competitive, and physically active. Men are less likely than women to seek out counseling, and those in counseling are more likely to address their problems using cognitive rather than emotional processes. In counseling, men are typically more goal-oriented than women, though they can work with counselors to develop affective skills and improved communication.


Class-bound values:

refer to characteristics that are more closely tied to social class than other factors. These can include the adherence to a 50-minute session, rather than allotting as much or as little time as the client needs; an unstructured approach to problems; and the seeking of long-range goals.


Culture-bound values:

by contrast, refer to the degree of openness and intimacy expressed during counseling sessions, the communication patterns that are defined within the session, and the emphasis on verbal and emotional expressiveness.


Types of communication that counselors pay attention to:

verbal communication, nonverbal communication, and paralanguage. Verbal communication refers simply to the words that people say and the content of their conversations. Nonverbal communication includes body language and other cues that sometimes contradict verbal messages. Paralanguage refers to vocal cues such as inflections, tones of voice, silences, hesitations, etc., rather than the content of discussions.


Verbal communication:

refers simply to the words that people say and the content of their conversations.


Nonverbal communication:

includes body language and other cues that sometimes contradict verbal messages.


Paralanguage refers:

to vocal cues such as inflections, tones of voice, silences, hesitations, etc., rather than the content of discussions.


Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) :

give protection to children with disabilities in the public school system. IDEA requires that all children between 3 and 21 be given free public education, children with handicaps who attend public school must be given an IEP (individualized education plan), and children with disabilities who attend private schools are eligible for special education services. IDEA aimed to place children with handicaps in the least restrictive environments possible.


Generation Xers:

1965 and 1976 and are also called the "baby busters." This generation is typically characterized by wanting the facts and the right answers, wanting exciting jobs, seeking stimulation, and keeping options open.

Born 1965-1980 (Sometimes listed as 1965-1979)


Generation Y, or the Millennial Generation:

which is multiculturally inclusive, self-confident, goal-oriented, and civic-minded.

Born 1981-1996 (Sometimes listed as 1980-2000)


Program accountability:

is an important concept for counselors to understand, as it justifies their activities to populations served and to the sources of funding.


Typical issues faced by older adults:

include the loss or illness of a spouse, increased leisure time, changing family roles, and physical changes. 


The most important factor in determining whether counseling will be successful is:

the relationship between counselor and client. 


is known for his focus on empathy, respect, and genuineness.

Carl Rogers


Intrinsic motivation:

refers to the internal desire to be competent and to engage in a behavior simply because it is personally rewarding. When individuals are intrinsically motivated, they do something to bring themselves internal satisfaction or pleasure.


Extrinsic motivation:

refers to the desire to do something because of external rewards (or not do it because of lack of rewards). Salary, allowance, and community service credits are all examples of extrinsic rewards.


Elisabeth Kübler-Ross is known for:

her research and development of the five stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.

Recent research shows that most people skip or come back to stages throughout the process of grieving.


Elisabeth Kübler-Ross grief stages criticisms:

Criticisms include the assertion that the stages do not adequately represent the complexity of the dying person's feelings and that the stages do not take into consideration the fact that feelings can be recurring.


Assertiveness training:

empower individuals to stand up for themselves without undermining or denying others' rights.

Assertiveness training helps individuals learn how to make their opinions and feelings known without becoming aggressive toward others, and it promotes expression of both positive and negative emotions



is prejudice against someone based on their age.



is prejudice against non-natives in a country;



is prejudice against an individual based on socioeconomic status



is prejudice against someone with handicaps or disabilities.


Cognitive dissonance:

refers to the discord individuals feel when they hold inconsistent beliefs or attitudes, or when their behaviors are inconsistent with their beliefs or values.


Familism :

refers to the value held by many cultures that prioritizes the role of families in individuals' lives.


Differentiation of Self:

which refers to how much a person's beliefs differ from those of their family's beliefs.

An individual with weak differentiation of self requires approval and acceptance from others in order to function, while someone with a strong differentiation of self is typically confident and sensible.


Racial/Cultural Identity:

There are five stages of development for individuals in the minority race or culture: conformity, dissonance, resistance and immersion, introspection, and integrative awareness. Integrative awareness occurs when the individual can appreciate aspects of both the dominant and minority cultures.


Nuclear Family:

a married heterosexual couple and their children


A more updated, inclusive definition of family is:

any small group of people who are related by blood or voluntarily choose to share their lives with each other.


Due to longer life expectancy and the baby boom generation:

there is an increasing older population. This explains why, in 2010, there were over 56 million Americans with disabilities, and this number is only expected to increase


Myers, Witmer, and Sweeney Wheel of Wellness:

five life tasks: spirituality or essence, work and leisure, friendship, love, and self-direction.


Gilbert Wrenn coined the term "cultural encapsulation" to refer to:

the tendency to disregard differences between cultures and individuals, the use of stereotypes in attempting to understand the world, and the implementation of only one type of technique with all counseling clients. Cultural encapsulation can severely limit the counselor's effectiveness in effecting change, in understanding and joining with the client, and in developing his or her own self-awareness over time.


Brown vs. the Board of Education prohibited segregation, leading to the need for:

educational personnel to develop cultural competency.


By their very nature, collectivistic cultures value the:

contributions an individual makes to the culture, not their individual successes or failures.


The just-world hypothesis is the tendency to attribute consequences to -- or expect consequences as the result of --:

a universal force that restores moral balance.


Dispositional attribution attributes behaviors to:

personality traits, attitudes and intelligence, while situational attribution considers external factors and the specific situation.


Acculturation is the process of:

becoming adapted to a new or different culture. The process may involve adopting the language, values, attitudes, dress and behavior of the host culture.


Therapeutic surrender occurs when:

a client from a different culture opens up and trusts, in this case, with the counselor.


Cultural bias arises as a result of:

ethnocentrism, the belief that one's culture is superior and/or normal, and other cultures are inferior or abnormal. Cultural bias can be reduced with research and education


Most of the cultural bias in American psychology is done unintentionally by people who see themselves as:

good, who have good intentions and deny their racism.


The salad bowl theory highlights:

the importance of mixing different types of people together but having them maintain their own individual identities (in contrast to the "melting pot" theory.)


The steps to developing cultural competency are:

• Do a needs assessment of skill, knowledge and awareness
• identify specific objectives in each area
• learn and practice new behaviors
• evaluate skill, knowledge and awareness


Ethnocentrism leads the counselor to think that his or her culture holds:

the correct values and beliefs. It is customary for Indian males to live with their parents until they wed.


Mores are a set of:

norms and customs derived from generally accepted practices, not laws. Laws are strict and binding rules that are enforced by an authoritative body.


A connotative error occurs when:

there is a misunderstanding about the meaning of a word, which may be based on culture.


Counselors who match the client's gender and culture offer the:

best chance of client retention and success.


Strongest predictor of a person to be "introspective"?

Socio-economic status is the strongest predictor of ability to be introspective


A minority is:

any group of people that differ from the majority group either culturally, ethnically racially or economically. The minority group will coexist among the majority group but will lack power and be subordinate to the dominate group. The "majority group" will often discriminate against the minority or subordinate groups


Cultural Intuition is the:

immediate knowledge, sensation, connection and rapport that counselor may experience when encountering clients from their own culture. It is the empathy that a counselor may feel for the client that shares their cultural background.


Historical Hostility represents the:

memory of negative treatment or a negative experience of a people's ancestors that continues to impact their current relationship with others, especially those whose ancestors were participants or perpetrators of the violation or negative treatment of their ancestors. That memory is at the core of their attitudes and feelings of anger, fear or mistrust towards the members who ancestors were past perpetrators. For example, Native Americans today may still find it difficult to trust or forgive the government and or White-Americans for the atrocities afflicted upon them by their European ancestors who came to settle in America.


A hate crime is a:

verbal or physical assault motivated by prejudice and the perception that the victim is a member of a minority group. Some groups are targeted for hate crimes because of their race, ethnicity, language, physical appearance, gender identity, sexual orientation, and or religion. Hate crimes are considered criminal acts that include but are not limited to physical attacks, verbal abuse or insults, harassment, bullying, hate mail or messages via mail, email, text or internet social media as well as damage to property.


Institutional racism involves:

the social policies, laws, and regulations or an atmosphere that discriminates against minorities and whose purpose is to maintain the social or economic advantage of the racial/or ethnic group in power


Cultural racism is the:

societal belief and customs that promote the assumption that the products of the dominant culture or majority group are superior in comparison to other minority groups and cultures.


A stereotype is the:

thought process that assigns over-generalized characteristics or qualities to a group or an individual. A stereotype is an overly exaggerated or simplistic characterization that can be either positive or negative in nature but is most likely offensive because it denies a person or members of a group of being acknowledged for their individual uniqueness and judges them based on the generalization rather facts. Stereotypes are faulty, rigid, conditioned beliefs based on limited experience and understanding of the individual or group.


Ethnocentrism is the belief that:

one's group (family, country, belief system) is right and or superior and must be defended. It is the thought process of judging other cultures based on the values or standards of one's own culture.


Denial of racism is the:

lack of awareness or the ignoring of racism where racism actually exists or affects an individual or another group. It is the inability to empathize with a person or group who are claiming to experience or be victimized by racism.


Marginalization is a form:

of oppression. A group is denied access to resources that would allow them to exist equitably among other groups or cultures.


Exploitation is a form of:

oppression where the dominant group takes economical advantaged of a minority for their skills and expertise. Exploitation creates unjust power relations when workers' energies and capacities are controlled by and appropriated for the benefit of other people.


When minority groups are violently targeted:

the act of violence itself becomes a tool of oppression. The targeted group does not have to necessarily experience physical violence to be victimized. The oppression can also take the form of harassment, humiliation, degradation or bullying of an individual. Threats can be verbal or sexual in nature and can often imply some physical threat.


Why are minorities diagnosed more often with mental health disorders?

Racial and ethnic minorities tend to be diagnosed with mental health disorders at a much higher rate than whites because diagnosis is not always done within a cultural context


Can be verbal or non-verbal. They allow the client to know that you are listening and interested and encouraged continued conversation:

General leads


occurs when a therapist remembers a positive or negative past experience in their own life triggered by a client's situation or personality characteristics. Awareness of this is crucial to proper handling of the therapist's emotions so as to not disrupt the therapeutic process:



is an unconscious process that occurs to everyone in many situations in life. It is a relationship, and only part of it, that transfers, not the person:



Movement synchrony is the:

mirroring of body language between two people who are communicating. Movement complementarity is paired movement between two people (one person talks, the other nods the head). Movement dissynchrony is a discrepancy in nonverbal behavior.


Cognitions are defined as:

people's thoughts, beliefs, ideas and attitudes towards themselves, others as well as their perception of the world around them


Are beliefs and attitudes that provide direction to everyday living.


Honesty, integrity, compassion, courage, honor, patriotism and respect are some of the common values.


Are concerned with perspectives of right and proper conduct and involves an evaluation of actions on the basis of some broader cultural context or religious standard.



is about action or decision; where our action is consistent with our beliefs or values, we say we are acting ethically. If we do not act in accordance with our values or beliefs, we say we are acting unethically.



Ethics is defined on a:

societal, not individual, level