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Flashcards in Professional Practices Ethics Deck (236)
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independent variable:

is the one that is manipulated in order to observe the effects on the dependent variable, which is unchanging.


What variable is manipulated?

independent variable


What variable is unchanging?

dependent variable


The modern history of the counseling field dates back to:

the late 19th century. In 1913, the National Vocational Guidance Association was founded as the first professional counseling association, and in 1952 merged with several other organizations to form what would later become the American Counseling Association (ACA).


What are the two types of research?

Inductive and deductive


Inductive research:

begins at the practical level and tends to descriptively add to developing theories.


Deductive research:

comes from theory that is already established, and tends to focus on determining what the relationships between different elements of the theory are.


Variance refers to:

the degree to which scores are different from each other. When measuring variability, researchers may use standard deviation (SD) to describe the variability within a distribution of scores. Variance is the square of the standard deviation and is used when conducting statistical analyses.


Internal validity refers to :

the degree to which external influences have been controlled. There are many threats to internal validity, including differences between subjects, unreliable instruments, maturation, attrition, experimenter bias, and statistical regression. Ecological validity refers to the extent to which study results can be generalized to another setting and is an example of external, not internal, validity.


A distribution of scores can be examined using three types of measures:

mean, median, and mode


Mean refers to:

the average of a list of scores


Median is:

the middle score on a distribution of scores


Mode is:

the most frequent score in a distribution of scores.


The mean, median, and mode are identical when:

distribution is symmetrical


Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) was founded in:



Proportional stratified sampling is:

when the proportion of subjects randomly sampled from a certain group reflects the proportion of the group in the general population.


External validity is:

the degree to which study results can be applied to populations outside of the study.


The American Association of State Counseling Boards (AASCB) is an organization that:

assists licensed counselors moving from one state to another. 


Formative evaluation is:

the process of gathering information about how well a new intervention works, and collects information over a period of time.


Summative evaluation:

by contrast, is typically a summary of how well an intervention has worked and is conducted over a shorter period of time.


Experimenter bias is:

one threat to internal validity and refers to times when subjects' responses are influenced by researchers for a variety of reasons.


Exceptions to Group Confidentiality:

Confidentiality is difficult to ensure in group counseling, though all members should be aware that information shared in the group is confidential. Exceptions to this rule include times when group counselors are concerned someone (not always a group member) is in danger of hurting themselves or someone else. 



refers to times when, for many different reasons, one end of a distribution of scores has more variability than the other end, resulting in a fan-like appearance.



on the other hand, refers to times when scores are equally distributed throughout the range.


Neuroplasticity refers to:

the brain's specific ability to produce new neurons and reorganize itself. 


Waiting time before re-administration of a test to a group?

two weeks


Qualitative research:

tends to study individual units in naturally occurring settings; research data is collected through observation; researchers' judgments and impressions are often used; it assumes that there are many different realities held by individuals and groups; it has the goal of describing the nature of things.


Quantitative research:

assumes there is one objective reality, studies samples or populations, uses statistical methods to compare results, and examines for causes and relationships.


Bell Curve distribution:

scores into six equal parts. Three of these parts are below the mean and three of these parts are above the mean. Sixty-eight percent (34% and 34%) comprise one standard deviation; 95% (13.5% and 13.5%) comprise two standard deviations; and 99% (2% and 2%) comprise three standard deviations.


Achievement tests are often reported in terms of:

 age-equivalent scores. This means an individual who earns a score equivalent to 4.5 has correctly answered the same number of items that an average four-and-a-half-year-old answers. Grade-equivalent scores work similarly, in that if a student correctly answers the same number of items that an average 7th grader completes, that student receives a grade-equivalent score of 7.