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Flashcards in Counseling Skills and Interventions Deck (283)
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Group Counseling: laissez-faire style

Lewin found that children under delegative leadership, also known as laissez-faire leadership, were the least productive of all three groups.1 The children in this group also made more demands on the leader, showed little cooperation, and were unable to work independently.


Group Counseling: democratic style

is typically the most effective leadership style. Democratic leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members. In Lewin’s study, children in this group were less productive than the members of the authoritarian group, but their contributions were of a higher quality


Group Counseling: autocratic style

Authoritarian leaders, also known as autocratic leaders, provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done.


Gestalt therapy:

is based on existential principles, and the goal of individuals in therapy is to integrate all of their needs to become a whole person. Clients are encouraged to attend to their emotions and to relive experiences. Counselors working from a gestalt approach often use the two-chair technique, role playing, and dream work.


Irvin Yalom is known for:

his contributions to group counseling theory. He identified four stages: orientation, conflict, cohesion, and termination. 


The social constructionist perspective:

operates from the viewpoint that we use language to construct a common reality with others, and that there are no objective "functional" family dynamics that apply to all family systems.


Steve de Shazer's philosophy:

is one that focuses on solutions rather than problems and underlying causes of those problems.


Social constructionists assume :

that clients know how to solve their own problems but need help in constructing a new way to use the knowledge they already have.


De Shazer also introduced :

the concept of therapists equipping clients with "skeleton keys," interventions that can be used to solve many problems.


Risky shift phenomenon occurs when:

a group makes decisions that are riskier and less conservative due to group discussions. This is a common occurrence in groups, as shared risk makes the individual risk less. Studies also show that extensive discussion about a particularly risky course of action tends to lessen perceived risk.


Irvin Yalom:

a well-known figure in the field of group counseling, believed that certain leadership functions were present in the field of group counseling. These leader functions include emotional stimulation, in which counselors encourage healthy expression of emotions; caring, which is characterized by warmth, acceptance, genuineness, and concern; meaning attribution, in which the group leader provides a cognitive perspective to group members' experiences; and executive leadership, which is characterized by the group leader structuring the group and ensures that the group is moving in a specific direction. During the executive leadership stage, the emphasis is placed on managing the group as a social system.



is the process of relating group members' thoughts, comments, and feelings to each other to increase cohesion and (at times) interaction.


Family Counseling:

can include nuclear family units, extended family, and anyone who impacts the family unit. Family counseling goals typically include increased communication, improved dysfunctional patterns, and the use of relationships to heal and stabilize the family



is one intervention that is often recommended for couples going through a divorce in order to avoid court involvement.


Primary groups:

emphasize preventing problems and developing healthy behaviors, for example, educational groups about the causes and symptoms of depression.


Secondary groups:

focus on reducing the severity of a specific problem and include preventative and remedial elements, such as adjusting to a loss.


Tertiary groups:

involve rehabilitation and focus on returning individuals to healthy functioning.


Group Stages:

forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning


Forming Stage:

members establish goals for the group but continue to focus on themselves.


Storming Stage:

is typically marked by conflict as members work out personality differences.


Norming Stage

members accept differences between each other and begin to work together. 


Performing Stage:

is when members trust each other and often achieve success.


Adjourning Stage:

is when group members celebrate their successes and assess their work.


Group Counselor Skills:

Among other skills, they should be able to manage and direct the group within certain time constraints, prevent members from blocking discussion, and help the group set goals. It is more important for counselors to have an attitude of openness to learning about each individual's values and beliefs.


Token Economy:

uses points or other types of reinforcements to reward individuals who exhibit desired behaviors. These points can then be used to purchase goods and privileges.


Person-centered Groups:

typically encourage openness and an exploration of a full range of feelings. Techniques include active listening and reflection rather than structured techniques found in other types of groups. The focus of person-centered groups is on increasing self-understanding and personal insight


Person-Centered Approach focuses on:

the importance of the counselor showing unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathic understanding to the client. The focus is on the client's current feelings and the client's process of becoming and moving toward self-actualization. Carl Rogers is the primary founder of this approach.


Blocking Role:

attempts to hinder any accomplishment of group goals or group formation by engaging in negative and distracting behaviors.


Maintenance Role:

encourages social and emotional bonding of group members.


Facilitative, or Building, Role:

helps group cohesion by contributing to positive and constructive group functioning.


Meaning attribution:

refers to the cognitive understanding that is made of the events in the group, which can enhance collective experiences and increase familiarity with emotions and feelings.


Corey identified six stages of a group:

formation, when the group counselor screens and selects group members; orientation and exploration, which focus on cohesion and trust between group members; transition, which deals with handling resistance and conflict; working, when the group becomes more productive and less dependent on the leader; consolidation and termination, when group members prepare for the outside world; and postgroup activities, which include evaluation and follow-up referrals for other services.


Corey Group Stages: Formation

when the group counselor screens and selects group members


Corey Group Stages: Orientation and Exploration

which focus on cohesion and trust between group members


Corey Group Stages: Transition

which deals with handling resistance and conflict


Corey Group Stages: Working

when the group becomes more productive and less dependent on the leader


Corey Group Stages: Consolidation and Termination

when group members prepare for the outside world


Corey Group Stages: Postgroup Activities

which include evaluation and follow-up referrals for other services


Jacob Moreno (1889-1974):

was a psychotherapist and social scientist known for his contributions of sociometry and psychodrama to group psychotherapy



the study and measurement of social relationships


According to object relations theory:

which is based on psychoanalytic concepts, a child must pass through four broad stages of development in order to function normally. If normal progression through these stages does not occur, the individual is at increased risk for attachment disorders and personality disorders such as borderline and narcissism.


Strategic family therapy focuses on:

the power and control expressed through family communication patterns, and techniques are frequently direct suggestions or assignments.



is used by counselors who can reframe the meaning of a situation.



a common occurrence in psychoanalytic counseling, is the projection of the counselor's feelings and perceptions onto the client.



is a technique developed by Jacob Moreno that is used by group counselors to work through conflicts by reorganizing individuals' perceptions and increasing insight. Psychodrama usually includes a director, a protagonist, an auxiliary ego, and an audience.


Experiential Family Therapy:

was developed by Carl Whitaker, who takes a very active role in the therapeutic process. Experiential family counselors attempt to join the family during therapy sessions, using their own personal experiences as family members to initiate change within the family system. In experiential family therapy, symbolism is a tool counselors use to explain family members' experiences.


Irvin Yalom:

a well-known figure in the field of group counseling, believes that certain leadership functions are present in the field of group counseling. These leader functions include emotional stimulation, in which counselors encourage healthy expression of emotions; caring, which is characterized by warmth, acceptance, genuineness, and concern; meaning attribution, in which the group leader provides a cognitive perspective to group members' experiences; and executive leadership, which is characterized by the group leader structuring the group and ensures that the group is moving in a particular direction.


R. K. Coyne's four levels of intervention:

individual, interpersonal, organization, and community populations


Gerald Corey's stages:

(initial, transition, working, and termination)


Bruce Tuckman's stages:

(forming, storming, norming, and performing)


Heterogeneous Group or Homogeneous Groups:

Counselors may want to form heterogeneous groups since they more accurately reflect real-world experiences and expose group members to a variety of opinions and backgrounds. However, if counselors are concerned about group members being able to relate to each other and their problems, they should try to create homogeneity within the group so that the group is made up of similar kinds of members.


Rationale emotive behavior groups require:

a highly active and directive group leader, which may be too forceful for some clients. In these groups, the leader confronts illogical thinking and aims to make constructive changes, leading to a greater acceptance of self. The group leader often assigns homework and encourages role-playing and exercises in self-discipline.


Object Relations Theory:

is based on psychoanalytic concepts, as it asserts that relationships that we form early in life affect our interpersonal interactions with others in the present. There are four stages of development that should be navigated in the first three years of life: fusion with mother (first three to four weeks), symbiosis (third to eighth month), separation/individuation (begins the fourth or fifth month), and constancy of self and object (occurs by the 36th month).


Virginia Satir:

is widely known for her development of the humanistic model of family counseling. Satir believed that family members often take on one of five styles of communication: placater, blamer, superreasonable, irrelevant, and congruent communicator. Satir saw herself as a coach and teacher of families, and worked intimately with families by joining with them and sharing in the experience of being a family member.


Albert Bandura's Central Concept Social Learning Theory:

social learning theory is self-efficacy, which is an individual's belief that he or she is able to perform a certain behavior. Self-efficacy can be encouraged through modeling, observing others, receiving verbal persuasion from others, and staying in tune with one's physiological states


John Piaget believed:

that children learn best through interactions with others


John Piaget: preoperational stage

which typically occurs between ages two and seven, the child begins to speak in multi-word sentences, expands his or her imagination, engages in symbolic play, and begins to possess a relative sense of time.


John Piaget: sensorimotor stage

occurs during the first two years of life when children experience the world through crawling and beginning to walk, as well as with their five senses.


John Piaget: concrete operational

stage occurs from age seven to eleven and is marked by an increased ability to think logically and about others' perspectives.


John Piaget: formal operational stage

is the fourth and final stage and occurs from age eleven through adulthood. During this stage, children develop abstract thought and complex problem-solving skills


Alfred Adler's work focused significantly on:

birth order


Alfred Adler's Birth Order:

The eldest child tends to get much attention, is hard-working and dependable, and fears losing love when a sibling comes along. Middle children see themselves in competition with the older sibling(s), may view life as unfair, and often feel left out. The youngest child often tends to go his or her own way and is influenced by all other siblings. Individuals who are only children have difficulty cooperating, often handle adult interactions well, and want to be the center of attention.


Person-centered group work is based on:

the work of Carl Rogers and the principles of unconditional positive regard, empathy, and genuineness. Counselors leading groups based on person-centered theory are often non-directive and tend to act more like members than leaders. Because these groups are less structured, there is considerable focus on listening and reflection.


Self-in-Relation Theory:

Judith Jordan

Central concepts of this theory are that people grow into relationships throughout life, positive relationships include mutual respect and empathy, engagements need to be authentic in order for relationships to grow, and mature functioning is characterized by meaningful connections, among other points. The self-in-relation theory is currently known as relational-cultural theory.


Transactional analysis groups focus on a:

combination of action and affect, and the leader is regarded as the diagnostician and teacher. This role of the leader as the instructor creates a structure that many multicultural group members like. One technique commonly used in transactional analysis groups is the contract, which can be adjusted for all types of beliefs and values. Transactional analysis gives a narrow (rather than broad) understanding of human nature, is both action- and affect-oriented, and does contain some concepts that may be difficult for multicultural clients to understand.


Cybernetics is the study of :

methods of feedback control, both negative and positive. Negative feedback loops are patterns of interaction that maintain stability and homeostasis within the family system.


Positive feedback loops:

are patterns of interaction that can facilitate change.



refers to different individuals reaching the same goal through different methods or routes.



simply refers to the fact that family members rely on and are influenced by each other



occurs in families that have diffuse boundaries and the separation between family members is unclear. This often happens on an emotional level in which two people “feel” each other's emotions, or when one person becomes emotionally escalated and the other family member does as well


John Krumboltz:

developed the learning theory of career counseling (LTCC)

Important concepts in Krumboltz's theory include reinforcement theory, cognitive information processing, and classical behaviorism as ways of modifying and molding career development and decision making


developed the learning theory of career counseling (LTCC)

John Krumboltz:


Jacob Moreno

known for developing the technique of psychodrama in the early 20th century.


known for developing the technique of psychodrama in the early 20th century.

Jacob Moreno


Cognitive Behavior Groups:

, which help group members find ways of identifying and changing behaviors, aim to eliminate problems and teach self-management skills. Leaders of cognitive behavior groups teach coping skills and methods of modifying behavior. Techniques used include contracts, reinforcement, and modeling.



Genograms, used particularly by Bowen are representations of a family tree that are used to explore relationships between family members. Families can complete a genogram together either during or between sessions.


Existential therapy focuses on:

the direct experiences of clients' lives, and the goal of this type of therapy is for clients to understand one's being and who one is and is becoming. Existential therapists believe that clients have the freedom to choose and are responsible for their own fate.


Psychoanalytic groups are often:

long-term and can be intense, but are aimed at making deep and lasting changes in group members. These groups focus on early childhood experiences and unresolved unconscious conflicts by using the relationships between group members and the leader to develop insight and self-awareness. The leader's role in psychoanalytic groups is to facilitate insight and interpret dynamics that occur within the group.


Attribution theory refers to:

the way that explanations individuals offer for their outcomes influence their expectations of future success and failure


Internal Locus of Control:

rewards are contingent on our own actions


External Locus of Control:

future is determined more by chance than by being contingent on certain events


Goals of Jungian therapy include:

getting to know oneself, integration of self, and transformation of self.


Adult Group Sizes:

For adult groups with only one leader (rather than co-leaders), the optimum size is eight. This gives group members the opportunity to build relationships with all other group members without feeling overwhelmed by the number of people.


First Step Crisis Intervention:

conduct a thorough assessment of the client and assess for risk of danger to self or others.


Steps of Crisis Intervention,

first assess risk of danger to self and other, then, in order, are as follows: establish rapport, identify specific problems and cause of the crisis, counsel the client to understand the emotional content of the situation, work on alternative solutions, implement an action plan, and follow up to evaluate effectiveness


Karpman's Drama Triangle:

forms when three individuals take on the roles of victim, persecutor, and rescuer.


Karpman's Drama Triangle theory suggests:

that conflict arises when one person takes on the role of victim or persecutor, and others step in to fill other roles due to each person's unmet psychological needs.

Karpman's Drama Triangle:

three individuals take on the roles of victim, persecutor, and rescuer.


Milan systemic family therapy refers to:

an approach that views the family as a system that aims to maintain balance. Systemic family therapists often use a variety of techniques, including circular questioning, which is the process of asking different family members the same questions about relationships. The family counselor can then use the ways that members differ in how they interpret events and interactions to suggest new ways of thinking about things, thereby hopefully changing family rules and relationships.


The goal of Bowenian family therapy:

Murray Bowen

identify dysfunctional patterns that exist within family systems and then alter and improve these patterns so they are not passed on to the next generation.


Task cohesiveness:

refers to how well a group works to achieve a common goal (rather than how efficiently or quickly the group can finish a task).


Social cohesiveness:

refers to the various relationships between group members.


Murray Bowen approach is:

transgenerational, meaning that he believes communication patterns and dynamics are passed down from one generation to the next. He believes that triangles within family systems represent the most basic building blocks of a family's emotional system. In a triangle, emotional discomfort that exists between two family members may be somewhat alleviated by bringing in a third family member to resolve the stress. Bowen also stresses the importance of self-differentiation, projection onto children in families, birth order and sibling position, and societal regression.


Object relations theory:

is based on psychoanalytic concepts, including the belief that early childhood is incredibly relevant to how clients operate within relationships in the present day. Object relations theories teach that, in the first three years of life, infants have the opportunity to develop significant relationships with primary caretakers that will shape their interactions with people throughout their lives.


Reciprocal determinism:

is a concept universally understood by family therapists and is the belief that every family member influences every other family member in a continuous process.


Circular causality:

is the belief that forces are moving in many different directions simultaneously, resulting in a complex variety of outcomes. Counselors who focus on circular causality during family sessions focus on the process, not the content.


Linear causality:

refers to the belief that one event or interaction directly causes another, so content and language help explain what is occurring within the family.



>> (Pre-group Issues: Formation of Group)
1. Initial Stage: Orientation & Exploration
2. Transition Stage: Dealing with Resistance
3. Working Stage: Cohesion and Productivity
4. Final Stage: Consolidation and Termination
>> (Postgroup Issues - Evaluation & Follow Up.)


Corey's INITIAL STAGE - Tasks

Orientation and exploration

Central task- establishing trust

Leader- establishes structure and models trust

Members- developing trust by how leader handles the group's fears and hesitations

Initial resistance- listen to fears and encourage full expression of them

What is necessary to move form initial to transition stage- cohesion, climate of trust, establishment of implicit and explicit norms

"For a group to meet the working stage it is essential that members make a commitment to face and work through barriers that interfere with the group's progress."



This stage is about recognizing group problems such as conflict, anxiety, defensiveness, challenges to or conflicts with the leader.

Characteristics of the Transition Stage- anxiety, defensiveness and resistance, fear, conflict (most common in this stage), challenges to the leader


Corey's WORKING STAGE - Tasks

Key Issues:
Disclosure versus anonymity
Honesty versus superficiality
Spontaneity versus control
Acceptance versus Rejection
Cohesion versus Fragmentation

Characterized by member's commitment to explore significant problems that they bring to the group and by the attention they pay to the dynamics of the group. The leaders structure and intervention is lower than at the initial and transitional stages.

Greater cohesion evidenced by increased self-disclosure, giving and receiving feedback, discussion of here and now interactions, confrontation, turning insight into action.


Corey's FINAL STAGE - Tasks

Characteristics- sadness and anxiety, fears of separation and application, evaluation of group experience, plan for follow-up sessions.

Major task facing members is consolidating their learning and transferring it to the outside environment:
-deal with feelings about separation and termination
-prepare to generalize learning to everyday life
-complete unfinished business
-make future plans

Leader functions- provide a structure that enables participants to clarify the meaning of their experiences in the group and to assist members in generalizing their learning from the group to everyday life.


Tuckman's Model



Levinson's Stage-Crisis View theory:

posits that there are predictable stable and transitional periods in life and that the social conflicts that arise during these periods must be resolved. He proposed that midlife crises are not only common but are part of normal, healthy development.


Aaron Beck:

is the main contributor to the field of cognitive therapy. He identified the concept of automatic thoughts in clients and their contribution to negative cognitive shifts. Beck believed that depression was caused by biological, genetic, personality, and stress factors. While Beck might agree that early childhood trauma could contribute to a current depressive state, this was not something articulated in his theories.


Horizontal interventions:

refer to times when the group leader interacts with the group as a whole, rather than just one member in particular.



occurs when several group members target an individual member of the group and criticize that person. This is a normal group process, but one that should not be tolerated due to its potential for damaging relationships.



is the process of keeping group content on a cognitive, rather than emotional, level.


Blocking and linking:

are responsibilities of the group leader that are meant to encourage group cohesion and constructive discussion.


Adlerian group counselors aim to:

help group members explore life assumptions, recognize their own strengths and accept responsibility, and increase self-esteem. The Adlerian group approach has been shown to be successful when used in parent education models in schools. The Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) program, developed by Don Dinkmeyer, is one such program.


Reality group counseling focuses on:

group members taking responsibility for their behaviors and increasing control over their lives. Techniques used in reality group counseling include honest self-examination, evaluating behavior, formulating a plan for change, and following through with this plan.



are psychoanalysts who have moved away from Freud's emphasis on the id as the main psychological force. More emphasis is placed on the ego, which is controlled by the reality principle. Like Freud, Neo-Freudians still believe in the power of unconscious desires and drives, focus on childhood experiences, and emphasize both psychodynamic and sociodynamic forces.


Group Content and Process:

. The content and process are often organized into three distinct group sections: warm-up, action, and closure. In well-functioning groups there is a smooth transition from one section to the next, and there is a balance between content and process in each section.



consists of two parts. One part of mindfulness is to focus and pay close attention to one's own current emotions, thoughts, sensations, and experiences. The second part is for the therapist to take a nonjudgmental attitude toward what the client is experiencing both internally and externally. The purpose of these two parts of mindfulness is to change the client's understanding of and relationship with their negative thoughts.


Typically length of time for outpatient group sessions?

1.5 hours


Group Co-leadership:

Group members can benefit from feedback from two leaders instead of one, co-leaders can act out role plays and model behaviors, and co-leaders can give each other feedback about their involvement with the group. When possible (and appropriate), it is helpful for one co-leader to be male and the other female, particularly if there is a combination of genders in the group. However, co-leaders should refrain from having power struggles. This could fragment the group, and it models unhelpful ways of working out differences.



is the process of looking for common themes in the group content or process and connecting them. 


Rights that group members are entitled to:

freedom from undue pressure, voluntary participation, freedom of exit, and the right to use the group's resources. The counselor is responsible for managing the group's interactions and balancing participation, so it is not a violation of the group member's rights for the counselor to request that he or she allow others to speak.


Group size for 5 or 6 year olds:

no more than 4 children



which is any behavior that impedes progress. There is a wide variety of resistant behavior, such as being disrespectful toward the group counselor, coming late to sessions or leaving early, refraining from talking during the session, changing the subject, denying that one has problems, and many other behaviors.


What is the commonality of group resistance behavior?

The one thing that resistant behaviors have in common, however, is that they all protect the group member from painful or uncomfortable feelings. The task of the group counselor is to address the resistance in a way that will draw the group member back into the group process in a helpful, therapeutic way.


Reflecting involves the counselor using the :

client's own language in order to encourage the client to continue to speak. Overuse of reflecting is called "parroting" and can be annoying to a client and ineffective


Exploring involves :

encouraging a deeper look at a client's emotions, thoughts or reasoning. This should be distinguished from probing which is continuing to press for information when the client wishes not to.


Clarifying is used to:

clarify what a client is saying so as not to hinder communication moving forward.


Is it appropriate to interrupt a client in order to get clarity of a clients statement?



Voicing doubt assists clients to:

reconsider their perception and it helps them understand that their perception is not shared by all. For clients with misperceptions, it can be useful to reconsider their point of view, although they may not immediately alter it.


Voicing doubt is appropriate when:

someone has many misperceptions due to illogical thinking, and at times with those who suffer from delusions or paranoia, although becoming argumentative is ineffective and counter-therapeutic.


Present tense is the most powerful tense, as it:

reflects the feelings and emotions that a person is currently and actively feeling


Research supports the finding that the cortex of the brain grows from:

front to back, with the frontal lobe, the area that guides reasoning and planning, developing last at age 25.


The activity theory, also known as the implicit theory of aging, normal theory of aging, and lay theory of aging, proposes that:

successful ageing occurs when older adults stay active and maintain social interactions.


Asians often avoid eye contact as a sign of respect.



Prejudice is defined as:

drawing negative conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating the evidence.


Social Facilitation is the enhancement or improvement of:

performance by the presence of others.


dispositional attribution:

people infer that an event or a person's behavior is due to personal factors such as traits, abilities, or feelings.


external/situational attribution:

people infer that a person's behavior is due to situational factors.


out-group homogeneity:

which refers to the tendency to view all individuals outside of one's in-group as being very similar.


Deindividuation occurs when:

a person's identity with a group overrides their own identity and self-awareness


Inoculation Effect in psychology (theory) is when:

inoculation effect in psychology (theory) is when one person tries to convince another (and/or themselves) to strengthen their particular belief(s) by warning them of the constant threats out there of them losing their belief. Thus putting the person on-guard to "attack"/"threats".


Groupthink occurs when:

no one expresses an opinion or dissent and there is an emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking.


Group polarization occurs when:

group discussion strengthens a dominate position in the group


Social Loafing:

where people are less productive in groups.


Diffusion of responsibility is a:

sociopsychological phenomenon whereby a person is less likely to take responsibility for action or inaction when other bystanders or witnesses are present.


Phil Zimbardo's famous study of:

randomly assigning a group of students to be prisoners and another group to be guards didn't last as long as it was originally supposed to due to the undue distress by the students involved


Asch and Zimbardo demonstrated in their research that:

peers have a significant influence on conformity, while


Milgram's research demonstrated:

the influence of a perceived authority figure on the subject's performance on a task.


Sherif's Robbers Cave study (1961):

took a group of 22 5th graders and divided them into two teams, the Eagles and the Rattlers. Once the teams created their own identities and engaged in competitions, Sherif brought the groups back together and required them to engage in cooperative work toward a shared goal, thus reducing the established prejudices between the groups


Autoplasty is the concept that:

the individual should change themselves in order to promote adjusting or "fitting in" with the host environment.


Alloplasty is the process of:

the environment changing to promote adjusting to those who are culturally different.


Cultural Anxiety is a naturally occurring anxiety that:

a person from a minority or different culture may experience while attempting to assimilate or exist in the host or dominate culture.


Collectivism is a social system in which:

individuals submit to the interest or subscribes to the values of groups such as peers, family, community, co-workers, leaders, government or any affiliation that may provide a sense of belonging for the individual.


Individualism is the ideology that:

the needs, desires, and aspirations of the individual take precedence over the needs, desires, and aspirations of the group. For example, an individual may focus on self-promotion which may not include any group that he may be a member of, such as family, peers, community, business or country.


Counselors using Adlerian theory see themselves as:

collaborative partners, teachers and models.


Psychodrama is a:

gestalt technique. "Acting as if" asks the client to pretend like they were well and behave as they would like to be. "Asking the question" refers to asking the client how their life would be different if they were well. "Catching oneself" draws out faulty "fictions" and helps the client bring destructive behavior into awareness so they can stop.


Rogerian counseling is:

person-centered, and genuineness, warmth, empathy and acceptance are cornerstones. To gain insight, most Rogerian counselors improve coping and gain functioning through the use of unconditional positive regard and open-ended questions.


Gestalt therapist emphasize the need for clients to:

stay in the here and now by using "I" language, rather than distancing themselves


Shaping is learning behavior in:

small steps that are successive approximations toward the final desired behavior.


According to Sigmund Freud, behavior and personality are derived from psychological forces in the mind that he separated into three categories:

the preconscious, conscious and unconscious. All three areas of the mind represent three different levels of awareness.


The preconscious is the part of the mind where:

our thoughts, memories and emotions that we are not aware of reside but can easily be brought into consciousness.


The conscious part of the mind is the:

current state awareness where thoughts, memories, sensations and emotions are experienced at any given time.


The unconscious part of the mind holds the:

thoughts emotions, memories and urges that the conscious mind is not aware of.


Transaction analysis is a social psychology developed by:

Eric Berne in the 1950s. TA improves communication.


Transaction Analysis - Interrogation involves:

forcing the client to answer from the adult ego state through a succession of confrontive questions.


Operant conditioning involves:

rewarding the desired or punishing the undesired behavior until the learner discriminates the desired behavior that elicits the reward. Operant conditioning requires the active participation of the learner.


Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to:

a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).


Social modeling occurs where:

new behavior is learned from watching other people and events without experiencing the consequences from the behavior or engaging in the behavior.


Fixed ratio means:

that a reinforcer is given after a certain number of successes.


Fixed interval means:

that a reinforcer is given after a set time lapses.


Variable ratio means:

a reinforcer is delivered after a variable number of responses.


Variable interval means:

that a reinforcer is given a variable time interval.


Extinction is the:

elimination of a behavior through withholding a reinforcer. In this case, the reinforcer is your client's attention.


Systematic desensitization is a method to:

reduce anxiety through successive approximations to reduce anxiety toward an anxiety provoking event or situation. The steps needed to accomplish the behavior are listed and prioritized from no anxiety to most anxiety. The hierarchy is reviewed with the counselor helping the client to learn relaxation techniques to reduce or overcome anxiety


A-B-C principle in rational emotive therapy:

Activating event, belief, consequences


Ulterior transactions occur when:

people are coming from different ego states but their response is coming from the same ego state.


Complementary transactions occur when:

people are coming from the same ego state.


According to theorist Eric Berne:

relationships are predictable patterns in which people take on roles as either parents, children or adults.


A crossed transaction occurs when:

partners address ego states other than the ego state that their partner is in, resulting in communication failures.


Frankl, an existentialist, believes that life's meaning can be discovered in three ways:

doing a deed, experiencing a value or suffering.


Gestalt therapist focus on:

feelings and senses to help them focus on the here and now.


Awareness, according to Gestalt therapists, is on a:

continuum with those more aware being the healthiest.


The Gestalt therapist focuses on energy:

blocks and how to use the energy constructively.


Freud believes that eliciting transference is:

the main job of the counselor. The client is left to explore unresolved issues and gain insight by ways of the therapist's interpretation. The therapist is the expert.


Cognitive restructuring is a cognitive behavioral therapy technique (CBT), developed by:



Adler believed that people strove to grow and overcome:

inferiority and stove for perfection. When they did not succeed, they developed an inferiority complex. When they overcompensated, they developed a superiority complex.


Karpman's triangle roles:

persecutor, victim, rescuer


Karpman's triangle Victim Role Motto:

The victim's motto is "Love me no matter what."


Karpman's triangle Persecutor Role Motto:

The persecutor's is, "I'm right."


Karpman's triangle Rescuer Role Motto:

The rescuer's is, "I'm good."


According to Jung, archetypes are:

patterns of energy that form into roles we take on in life. They result from stereotypes and archetypes which have both illuminating and shadow sides.


Bibliotherapy is:

therapy using books as a tool for insight and change.


Occam's Razor implies that:

a simple explanation is usually the accurate one


Psychodynamic therapists, with a predominate focus on:

childhood experiences, are focused on the client's past.


Humanistic therapists focus on:

the here and now, or the present


Reality therapists focus on having the client own their ____ and stresses the importance of _____ and doing what is in your control.

behavior , responsibility


The interaction techniques of Motivational Interviewing can be summed as:

Open-Ended questions, Affirmations, Reflections and Summaries (OARS).


Therapists do not tell clients how to solve their problems, and the client leads the way in the therapeutic relationship this type of counseling is what?

Rogerian person-centered-therapy


The premise of a token economy is the use of:

symbols that represent positive and desired behavior. The use of the check marks on the chart, which are then 'traded' for the reward of free time, create an economy of exchanging good behavior for sought-after rewards.


Paradoxical Theory of Change:

the more we try to be what we are not the more we will stay the same. The more that we are able to accept who we are the more we will be able to change. first articulated by Arnold Beissner in the early 1970's.


Jungian Archtype - Anima/Animus:

The anima is a feminine image in the male psyche, and the animus is a male image in the female psyche. The anima/animus represents the "true self" rather than the image we present to others and serves as the primary source of communication with the collective unconscious.


Jungian Archtype - The Persona:

The persona is how we present ourselves to the world. The word "persona" is derived from a Latin word that literally means "mask." It is not a literal mask, however.


Jungian Archtype - The Shadow:

The shadow is an archetype that consists of the sex and life instincts. The shadow exists as part of the unconscious mind and is composed of repressed ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts, and shortcomings.


Jung believed that dreams were :

compensatory and prospective, serving to prepare people for the events and experiences they anticipated in the future as well as work to bring a balance of opposites.


Stimuli Generalization:

Generalizing a specific experience to a more broad category of stimulus.


Negative Reinforcement:

it is reinforcing the desired behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulus. Example: put on your seat belt chime.


Ratio corresponds to a number of:



Interval corresponds to a:

period of time.


The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change):

The TTM posits that individuals move through six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination/recurrence.


Readiness to change is a hallmark tenet of:

Motivational Interviewing, and it is a variable, flexible trait. It is the trait that is measured in determining a person's place in the Stages of Change


The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) - Precontemplation:

In Precontemplation, a person is not interested in changing


The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) - Contemplation:

In Contemplation, s/he considers changing, but makes no commitment.


The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) Preparation:

In Preparation, a person is committed to change, but isn't actively changing.


The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) - Action:

In action, the person is changing the behavior.


The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) - Maintenance:

In maintenance, the person has changed the behavior successfully


The Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) - Recurring / Termination:

In recurrence, the person has experience a reoccurrence, or relapse of old behavior that must be extinguished.


Gestalt Resistances:

Retroflection, Confluence, and Introjection.


Shame-attacking exercises(used in REBT) aim to:

help reduce the shame associated with certain behaviors and increase a person's self-acceptance.


Socratic questioning is a cognitive process and way of:

asking open ended questions which try to tease out what the client has learned from their experiences.


Which therapy uses the empty chair?



The client owns the therapeutic environment at all times.

Person centered therapy - Roger


Structural family therapy involves the:

involvement of the therapist into the family structure in order to accurately assess and treat the family.



is an acronym to remind counselors of the proper attending behavior when working with clients. The S stands for sit squarely; the O stands for adopt an open posture; the L stands for Lean in towards the client; the E stands for make and maintain eye contact; and the R stands for Relax. It is important for counselors to be able to demonstrate attending skills. Attending skills are the foundation of establishing good rapport with the client and creating a safe environment for trust to emerge between the client and counselor.


Attending means that you are:

physically, mentally, and emotionally present with your client, paying close attention and listening to what the client expresses verbally and non-verbally.


A working alliance is the:

participatory agreement and involvement between a counselor and client that directs the counseling relationship toward meeting therapeutic goals, objectives and outcomes.


Self-disclosure is the:

intentional decision on behalf of the counselor to reveal information of a personal nature about him or herself to the client. Self-disclosure can be a way of communicating empathy to the client only if the content of what is being disclosed is brief and to the benefit of the client. Self-disclosure should be used to inspire hope, used to provide feedback, used to confront the client or used to provide an alternative view for the client.


The miracle question or "problem is gone" question is a:

method of questioning that a coach, therapist, or counselor can utilize to invite the client to envision and describe in detail how the future will be different when the problem is no longer present.


Confrontation is when the counselor calls to attention any:

incongruencies between what the client says and any observed emotions or behaviors.


Triangulation is a:

dysfunctional way of communication often seen in families where one person is placed in the middle and becomes manipulated to carry communication messages between two other members. The person in middle often feels like they are being pulled in two different directions by the other two members of the triangle.


The ego serves as a moderator between the:

id and the superego, balancing desires and wishes with reality.


The concept of the group as an entity dates back to:



First Formal Group:

In 1905, Joseph Pratt, a medical doctor from Boston, gathered a group of patients with tuberculosis in order to educate them.


Interpersonal learning occurs when:

a person tries out new behaviors in group.



when a member feels relief that they are not alone and that others share similar problems.


Catharsis occurs when:

group members learn to express their feelings and they gain relief when they do so.


Corrective recapitulation is the:

long-winded way of saying we use the dynamic of the group to heal wounds from childhood, learn new behaviors, and receive validation and empathy. Over time this corrective experience replaces the age-old unmet expectations, hurts, and disappointments.


The instillation of hope occurs when:

group members gain confidence in the group process to help them recover.


Group cohesion allows members to:

feel a sense of group identity and belonging.


Termination from a group:

Termination is a process, not a one-day event. It has is its own unique stage and can be a learning and growing experience for all. Termination in group often brings up issues around grief for participants, and this should be considered and processed over time accordingly.


Group Size?


Groups with too few members have limitations in terms of processing group roles, group dynamics and the amount of feedback offered to others, not to mention their further reduced effectiveness with reduced attendance. Groups of 10 or more prove to be difficult to manage, and time may not allow adequate processing or attention to each member's needs.


Sequence of Group Formation:

Form, storm, norm, perform, adjourn



In this stage, most team members are positive and polite. Some are anxious, as they haven't fully understood what work the team will do. Others are simply excited about the task ahead.
As leader, you play a dominant role at this stage, because team members' roles and responsibilities aren't clear.

This stage can last for some time, as people start to work together, and as they make an effort to get to know their new colleagues.



Next, the team moves into the storming phase, where people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage. This is the stage where many teams fail.

Storming often starts where there is a conflict between team members' natural working styles. People may work in different ways for all sorts of reasons but, if differing working styles cause unforeseen problems, they may become frustrated.

Storming can also happen in other situations. For example, team members may challenge your authority, or jockey for position as their roles are clarified. Or, if you haven't defined clearly how the team will work, people may feel overwhelmed by their workload, or they could be uncomfortable with the approach you're using.

Some may question the worth of the team's goal, and they may resist taking on tasks.

Team members who stick with the task at hand may experience stress, particularly as they don't have the support of established processes or strong relationships with their colleagues.



Gradually, the team moves into the norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate colleagues' strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.

Now that your team members know one another better, they may socialize together, and they are able to ask one another for help and provide constructive feedback. People develop a stronger commitment to the team goal, and you start to see good progress towards it.

There is often a prolonged overlap between storming and norming, because, as new tasks come up, the team may lapse back into behavior from the storming stage.



The team reaches the performing stage, when hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team's goal. The structures and processes that you have set up support this well.

As leader, you can delegate much of your work, and you can concentrate on developing team members.

It feels easy to be part of the team at this stage, and people who join or leave won't disrupt performance.



Many teams will reach this stage eventually. For example, project teams exist for only a fixed period, and even permanent teams may be disbanded through organizational restructuring.

Team members who like routine, or who have developed close working relationships with colleagues, may find this stage difficult, particularly if their future now looks uncertain.


Maintenance roles help:

keep the group running.


Blocking roles call attention to:

ignored or suppressed individual needs in the group.


The gatekeeper proposes the:

flow of communication or encourages communication from more passive members.


The information giver:

relates pertinent facts or generalization to the group discussion. An information giver completes a task (offering information).


A procedural technician:

expedites group movement by doing things for the group that moves it along.


Dominators assert their authority by:

manipulating the group or some of its members. This can take the form of giving authoritative directions, interrupting others, or asserting a superior status, all which block the group dynamic.


Those in a help-seeking role call forth a:

sympathy response from the group and/or its members, through insecurity, self-deprecation, or confusion. This blocks the group from moving forward.


The harmonizer of a group:

reconciles differences between others by relieving tension. The compromiser yields her own status by admitting wrong or moving in to a middle ground. The energizer prods the group to action or decision. The playboy/girl makes a display of his or her lack of involvement in the group through nonchalance, horseplay or otherwise.



Members may displace their feelings of aggression onto the scapegoat. What the members dislike in the scapegoat, they dislike in themselves.

The group believes that if the scapegoat would change, the group would resume normal functioning, and they see the scapegoat's problems as a result of the scapegoat's personality characteristics, and as independent from the group dynamic.


T-group is a:

training group


Size of a T-group (training group):

A T-group is 12-15 members and has a focus on a specialized training


Size of an Encounter Group:

encounter group can be from 8-200 members with a specified or open-ended format.


Size of a Therapy Group:

A therapy group typically has 6-8 people and is a formal and structured process.



Connecting one group member's experiences to another.


The hot seat technique is a:

Gestalt approach aimed at improving the self-esteem of the group member by having the person sit in front of the group and handle confrontations by the Gestalt therapist.


A low task, low relationship leader is using a:

delegating style.


A low task, high relationship leader is using a:

participating style.


A high task, low relationship leader is using a :

telling style.


A high task, high relationship leader is using a :

selling style.


Universality is the awareness or the feeling of:

"not being alone" that a person experiences in within a group. Universality is the "common denominator" that members of the group share. That common denominator could be a cause, emotion, behavior or a difficult circumstance that group members share in common. The beauty of group work is knowing that an individual is not the only one with a problem and that there are other members going through similar problems who are in different stages of their awareness and healing and therefore can be an example or a support for that individual member.


Altruism is the empathetic act of :

giving in order to be helpful without expecting anything in return. In a group, through this type of giving, members benefit by gaining self-awareness and confidence and psychological growth.


Is not a good characteristic of a group counselor.

Hubris or conceit



The group is in the norming stage. According to Bruce Tuckerman's Five Stages of Group Development, the group has entered the "norming" stage where they are able to agree upon the "rules of engagement" for the group as well as the goals. In this stage member may argue but they are also learning about each other by listening to each other and are beginning to understand and accept each other. In this stage the group is beginning to become more cohesive



This group is in the forming stage. According to Bruce Tuckerman's Five Stages of Group Development, the forming stage is the period when the group first comes together and gets to know one another as they form the group.



The group is in the storming stage. According to Bruce Tuckerman's Five Stages of Group Development, the group is in the "storming" stage where members are becoming restless with one another and there is a chaotic competition for leadership among the group members. This the trial of the group process, where all the personalities and personal agenda emerge and begin to clash against each other. A good counselor will be able to suppress the conflict and keep the group focused and on track but the under-tone of conflict will continue to linger on.



The group is in the performing stage. According to Bruce Tuckerman's Five Stages of Group Development, the group is in the "performing" stage where the members are participating and doing work. A group in this stage is meeting objectives and reaching its goals. The members know and accept each other and are able to work together and trust each other. The group is flexible and able to manage roles and responsibilities and adapt to changes whenever necessary. The morale and energy of the group is high as people are eager to do work. Not all groups are able to reach this stage, an effective counselor will work hard to get the group as close to this stage as possible.



The group is in the adjourning stage. According to Bruce Tuckerman's Five Stages of Group Development, the group is in the "adjourning" stage where the group members are bringing their work to a close and the group is preparing to terminate. The role of the group counselor is to attend to the feeling of the members of a group regarding the group's coming to an end. Some members may have difficulty and experience anxiety because the ending of the group triggers feelings of abandonment from their past.


Economy of approach is:

One of the advantages of group work. Individual therapy can be costly but group work is more cost effective because several people can receive treatment at one time by one or two group leaders with the added benefit of community and a connection to others.


Inventiveness is the ability to:

be spontaneous and creative as a group counselor. Effective group counselors approach every group with innovative and fresh ideas. When facilitating groups, the group counselor or leader should be aware of the repetitive patterns or rut that the group can easily fall into. It's important for the group counselor to be aware of this and be thinking of new and innovative ways to incorporate new group experiments and activities that keep the group from becoming dull and mundane.



is one of the best ways a group counselor can teach desired behavior by demonstrating, disclosing or giving examples to the members of what the appropriate behavior looks like. In order for group members to grow and resolve issues or experience change in their real world they will have to practice taking risk, being open and honest with themselves and others.


The encourager:

may want to be liked and accepted and needs this affirmation in order to feel secure. The encourager is uncomfortable with conflict and uses encouragement to control the atmosphere. An encourager may overly use this trait in order to deflect attention from himself onto others.


The expediter:

Every now and then the expediter may act as a referee between group member conflicts. Group members can find this type of personality to be annoying especially if they are bossy or controlling or take their responsibility within the group too seriously.


The Follower:

She is agreeable and finds it easier to go along with whatever the group wants or decides. She does not use her voice in group nor in real life. She prefers to shrink into the background. A follower may be too insecure or lacking in confidence to express her feelings or initiate any ideas or discussion. She does not bring much energy or vitality to the group


The Initiator:

An Initiator may attempt to stimulate the group to "think outside the box" or to move forward. The group's reaction to an Initiator can be positive if they are all in agreement with moving forward with his idea or their response can be negative if the group members' reaction is unresponsive or they just choose not to act on any of the initiator's ideas or suggestions.


The Procedural Technician:

The Procedural Technician offers to carry out or assumes the technical tasks or needs of the group. Example: clean up, setup chairs, make coffee etc.


The Recorder:

He takes notes and writes down and remembers any of the group's decisions, plans, ideas or suggestions.


The Blocker:

The Blocker may be stubborn or resistant to the idea of the group moving forward especially if the group is moving towards something that is scary or unpredictable. The Blocker is resistant to the wishes of the group and her behavior can impede group progress.


The Seducer:

A Seducer uses subtle attempts to manipulate and control other members of the group. She may play victim or may act or pretend to be fragile in attempt to get others to either sympathize with her, reach out to her or even rescue her.


The Monopolist:

A Monopolist's contribution is usually self-centered and is a distraction to the group process. A Monopolist's story-telling may be a welcomed relief when the group begins to go too deep but the group counselor or leader must deal with this behavior in order to get down to the Monopolist's underlying anxiety.


Self-righteous Moralist:

he Moralist has the need to always be right and believes that everyone else is wrong. She is the "authority on all moral issues." She may be brash and may not care if anyone in the group likes her. The Moralist will hardly ever admit that she is wrong. The Moralist wants to be respected for her moral integrity and imposes her moral values on other members of the group. The Moralist's sense of moral superiority tends to alienate other group members. Her self-righteous behavior is a defense mechanism for the anger, guilt and shame that she really feels on the inside. Her self-righteous behavior is also camouflage for her lack of insight or awareness into her own problems and issues.


A genogram is a:

diagram similar to a family tree. It uses shapes and symbols to map family patterns and relationships, as well as identify the history of emotional and behavioral patterns and medical history of past generations. A genogram is used to help understand the lives of people and families and how they exist and functions in systems.