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Flashcards in Intake, Assessment, and Diagnosis Deck (144)
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The goal of consultation:

is preventative in nature, as it aims to increase competence so the counselor can avoid future problems. Consultation can focus on content, such as knowledge about a particular area, or it can focus on process.


Sometimes researchers use observation as a technique to collect data on specific types of behaviors:

Sometimes researchers use observation as a technique to collect data on specific types of behaviors. The data is then recorded using coding systems, record forms, and/or schedules. An example of this is a behavioral flow sheet, in which the recorder documents certain behaviors that occur within a specific time frame, such as every hour.


Assessment Resources:

Several assessment resources are available to counselors who want to know more about available assessments. The Mental Measurements Yearbook, Tests in Print VIII, and A Counselor's Guide to Career Assessment Instruments are examples of assessment resources. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - 5th edition is used to diagnose a variety of mental disorders.



The Rorschach consists of a collection of abstract ink blot images onto which the individual projects often unconscious desires, urges, and needs. The Rorschach is considered an unstructured test, as the individual is given considerable flexibility in how he or she responds.


Is Rorschach a structured or unstructured test?

The Rorschach is considered an unstructured test, as the individual is given considerable flexibility in how he or she


Social Desirability:

This refers to the tendency for participants to respond in ways they think are socially desirable even if their answers do not accurately reflect their true attitudes and beliefs.


Crystallized Intelligence:

is comprised of acquired skills and can be influenced by culture, personality, and education.


Fluid intelligence:

refers to the ability to solve new problems quickly and is independent of education and culture.


Validity refers to:

the extent to which a test measures what it is meant to measure



refers to the extent to which a test can produce the same results if it is re-administered to the same group of individuals. Tests can, at times, be reliable but not valid.


Arthur Jensen:

contributions to psychometrics

exploration of why individuals differ behaviorally from each other.

believed that genetic factors are the most powerful indicators of intelligence.


Speed test:

are concerned with how many questions you can answer correctly in the allotted time.


Power Test:

 on the other hand will present a smaller number of more complex questions. The methods you need to use to answer these questions are not obvious, and working out how to answer the question is the difficult part.


Difference between family and individual counseling?

In general, family counseling tends to focus on problems that are current and therefore usually follows a relatively brief course of treatment. This is in contrast to individual counseling, which traditionally explores issues that contribute to long-standing problems and barriers and therefore is longer in duration than family counseling.


Proxemics refers:

to the spatial features of the environment such as where individuals choose to sit and how furniture is positioned.


Kinesics refers :

to facial expressions, body movements, and other nonverbal communication.



is a graphic representation of social links that a person has.

are often used to collect information about interrelationships between people in a group setting. The counselor leading the group is likely interested in how each member views his or her own position in the group as well as how each member views the relationships between others.


Achievement tests accomplish what?

on the other hand, measure the effects of learning on an individual


Intelligence tests, including the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV) accomplish what?

measure a person's cognitive ability to think in abstract terms and adapt to the environment.


Curricular validity refers to:

how well a test measures the curriculum being tested and is evaluated by experts. Most end-of-grade testing in public schools is based on a specific curriculum that is supposed to be taught by teachers throughout the previous school year.


Predictive validity refers to:

the degree to which a measure predicts future performance.


Convergent validity refers to:

two separate tests that measure the same attributes that are correlated.


Discriminant validity refers to:

two separate tests that don't correlate.


Consequential validity refers to :

the consequences of a study on society. Some researchers believe a test must benefit society in order to be considered valid, though not all researchers agree on this point.


Postmodern Therapy:

the meaning of a client's life is gained through the client's own understanding.


Narrative therapy is based on:

the idea that clients' reality is based on their own words and language, and that clients' lives can be thought of as stories in progress.


Semantic Differential Scale:

Semantic Differential Scale is a survey or questionnaire rating scale that asks people to rate a product, company, brand or any "entity" within the frames of a multi-point rating options. These survey answering options are grammatically on opposite adjectives at each end. Good < ------> Bad


The term "sociometric methods":

refers to a large class of methods that assess the positive and negative links between persons within a group.


Unobtrusive measures are:

measures that don't require the researcher to intrude in the research context. Direct and participant observation require that the researcher be physically present. This can lead the respondents to alter their behavior in order to look good in the eyes of the researcher


 Likert scale:

 is a five (or seven) point scale which is used to allow the individual to express how much they agree or disagree with a particular statement.


Validity refers to:

the extent to which a test measures what it is meant to measure. 


Construct validity, which refers to:

the degree that a test measures what it is meant to measure


Face validity:

in which the test looks to be valid


Content validity:

in which the test material comes from a certain domain


Predictive validity:

in which the test makes predictions that are confirmed later.


David Wechsler is known for:

his contribution to intelligence tests for adults and children. His tests include the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Wechsler believed that intelligence tests should focus on both verbal and performance skills, and they often help identify learning disabilities in children. Wechsler's tests focus on both fluid intelligence (the ability to solve new problems) and crystallized intelligence, (learned skills that are influenced by education, culture, and personality).


Caplan's model of consultation:

In Caplan's model, two professionals discuss issues specific to mental health diagnoses, such as eating disorders, and treatment. The center of discussion can be an individual client or family, the consultee and the client, treatment or a specific program, or the consultee and administration.


The Johari window:

named after Joe Luft and Harry Ingham, is used to explore information that is not known to the client and/or not known to others. Through remaining curious about the client's internal world, the counselor helps the client to maximize the information that both the client and others know. According to Luft and Ingham, customs, social training, and fears keep parts of this information unknown.


Bergen's Model Consultation:

Consultation is used when counselors would like to function more effectively in individual, group, or community settings. Bergen's model uses a behavioral approach that emphasizes the verbal interactions during consultation. The four stages of this model are problem identification, problem analysis, plan implementation, and problem evaluation. Bergan's model also focuses on problem behaviors, their antecedents, and their consequences.


Aptitude tests:

measure the capacity of the test taker to learn and are often used as part of job applications. These tests measure abstract, verbal, and numerical reasoning. Examples are the Differential Aptitude Test (DAT) and the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test


Achievement tests measure:

educational knowledge


Intelligence tests :

measure cognitive potential


Personality tests:

measure individuals' unconscious desires and anxieties as well as personality traits.


Stanine (STAndard NINE) scales:

consist of nine points and are used to convert test scores to single digits. Stanines are always positive and can range from zero to nine. The mean of a stanine scale is always five and the standard deviation is always two.


Mean of a Stanine scale?



Norm-referenced assessments:

compare test takers to others who have taken the same test, so how much a test taker knows is not as important as how the test taker compares with others.


Criterion-referenced tests:

such as the National Counselor Examination, compare a test taker to some objective set of criteria, such as a cut-off score.


Ipsatively interpreted tests:

compare the test results with the test taker's results on other parts of the same assessment.


Intrusive methods:

refer to times when clients know that they are the subject of observation and/or data collection. 


Unobtrusive methods:

refer to times when the individuals are unaware that data is being collected, such as when you review a client's existing records.


Charles Spearman :

is known for his development of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, or Spearman's rho, the first statistical measure for intelligence tests. It determines how well the relationship between two variables can be described.


The first statistical measure for intelligence tests.

Spearman's rho


Convergent validation refers to:

times when there is a high correlation between the concept the test is meant to study and other constructs.


Standard deviation (SD) is a :

measure of variability and describes the variability within a distribution of scores. It is the mean of all the deviations from the mean, and is a popular measure of the dispersion of scores.


Eugenics refers to:

the process of genetically improving the human population.


Sir Francis Galton:

cousin of Charles Darwin

He believed that intelligence was completely determined by genetics and therefore could be cultivated through selective parenting.


Sociometry is:

the study and measurement of social relationships. A sociogram is a sociometric tool that allows researchers to visually illustrate interrelationships or group structure, and can reveal a significant amount about perceptions and dynamics between people in the same group.


if a test is created to measure a person's knowledge of material in a certain domain and only draws questions from that specific domain it has:

content validity.


Predictive Validity:

in which the test makes predictions that are confirmed later


Construct Validity:

in which the test measures a certain characteristic


Concurrent Validity:

in which test results are compared with other results around the same time


The Myers-Briggs Type Inventory:

is a personality assessment that provides a specific psychological type, based on the work of Carl Jung. Despite the fact that the Myers-Briggs lacks reliability and validity, it continues to be one of the most commonly used personality inventories.


Posited that there are four principal psychological functions through which individuals experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking:

Carl Jung


Appraisal refers to:

the process of going beyond quantitative measurements to make judgments about human attributes and behaviors. Appraisal is also known as evaluation.


The standard error of measurement (SEM):

is a measure of reliability and is sometimes referred to as the confidence limit.


Biopsychosocial interviews are:

holistic and comprehensive. Counselors who conduct these interviews address the biological, psychological, and social aspects of their clients lives in order to identify what is contributing to their clients' problems and guide treatment planning/goal setting.


Biopsychosocial interviews can help determine:

factors that contribute to a client's problems and can help guide the treatment plan. Mental status exams are used to assess a client's behavioral and cognitive functioning


Diagnostic interviews are used to:

help diagnose mental illness.


Mental status exams are used to:

assess a client's behavioral and cognitive functioning. It consists of descriptions based on the counselor's observations of the client's appearance, behavior, level of consciousness, attitude, perception, and affect. Screening is a process used when selecting members for a small group.


Adler Birth Order - Oldest child:

Gets much attention; tends to be dependable, hard-working, achievement oriented. When another child (intruder) comes, oldest may fear losing love.


Adler Birth Order - Second child:

Shares attention; sees self as if in a race to compete with first child; often succeeds where older fails.


Adler Birth Order - Middle child:

Often feels left out; may see life as unfair; "poor me" attitude; may develop problems.


Adler Birth Order - Youngest child:

Baby in family; pampered; special role to play; influenced by all others; tends to go own way; often develops in directions no one else thought of.


Adler Birth Order - Only child:

does not learn to share or cooperate; often deals with adults well; wants center stage even as adult and if does not get it, may have difficulties.


Birth order implications:

Children in the same family have different psychological environments because of the difference in birth order.


Rogerian counselors discourage diagnosis because:

using a diagnosis runs counter to seeing each person as unique. It also puts the counselor in an authoritative/expert role.


The diagnosis of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder was created in order to:

prevent misdiagnosis and provide better treatment and care for children who do not necessarily meet the criteria for bi-polar disorder and yet display symptoms of chronic, severe, and or persistent irritability that manifest itself as frequent temper outburst in response to the frustration that they are feeling.


Children between the ages of 6 and 18 who experience persistent irritability, tantrums and behaviors more than three times a week for more than a year may be experiencing:

Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder.


Bing Eating Disorder is described as:

uncontrolled binging at uncontrolled bingeing at least once a week for at least three months. This disorder is found in children and is more common in adolescents and young adults although it can occur at any time during the lifespan.


Major Neurocognitive Disorder is defined as:

the significant and progressive decline in cognitive abilities such as attention, executive functioning, learning, memory, language as well as motor and social skills


Holland Style/Type: Realistic

aggressive; prefers explicit tasks requiring physical
manipulation; has poor interpersonal skills.
Examples: mechanic, technician.


Holland Style/Type: Investigative

intellectual; prefers systematic, creative investigation
activities; has poor persuasive and social skills.
Examples: chemist, computer programmer.


Holland Style/Type: Artistic

imaginative; prefers self-expression via physical, verbal or other materials; dislikes systematic and ordered activities. Examples: artist or editor


Holland Style/Type: Social

social; prefers activities that inform, develop, or enlighten others; dislikes activities involving tools or machines.
Examples: teacher, counselor


Holland Style/Type: Enterprising

extroverted; prefers leadership and persuasive roles;
dislikes abstract, cautious activities.
Examples: manager, sales personnel.


Holland Style/Type: Conventional

practical; prefers ordered, structured activities; dislikes
ambiguous and unsystematized tasks.
Examples: file clerk, cost accountant


If a professional counselor is billing a client's insurance company for payment of services:

the counselor must provide the insurance company with a diagnosis along with the code from a current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.


The Thematic Apperception Test is a :

projective test that uses pictures for clients to interpret.


A free choice test allows answers to be:

filled in (fill in the blank etc)


Having high concurrent validity means:

the test in question has a high validity correlation to an already valid test


What kind of test measure the speed in which answers are provided?

speed test. based on speed of answers.


A power test has time limits



A 0.60 reliability co-efficient means that:

60% of the scores are accurate


Inter-Observer Reliability or Inter-Rate:

Used to assess the degree to which different raters/observers give consistent estimates of the same phenomenon.


Plausible error is determined by :

multiplying the reliability coefficient by 100 and the subtracting the reliability coefficient from 100


The generally acceptable level for most psychological attributes is a reliability coefficient of:



Test-Retest Reliability:

Used to assess the consistency of a measure from one time to another.


Binet was appointed by the French government to:

develop and lead a commission to identify children in need of enhanced education.



Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence | Third Edition. An assessment of cognitive development for preschool and young children.



Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale | Third Edition. Measures an adult intellectual ability



Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale | Fourth Edition

is the most advanced adult measure of cognitive ability, based on recent research in the area of cognitive neuroscience and the theories and work of David Wechsler PhD. Guidance on using this test in your telepractice.



Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.

is used to screen for personality and psychosocial disorders in adults and adolescents. It is also frequently administered as part of a neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive functioning.


SBIRT is a :

brief intervention for assessment of substance use disorders. It stands for Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral and Treatment.


The PHQ-9:

or the Personal Health Questionnaire is a quick, 9-item assessment that can be administered over time to monitor for change.


CAGE is a measure for:

Screens for excessive drinking and alcoholism


The Flynn effect is :

the increase in average test scores on intelligence test scores all over the world.


The Hawthorne effect:

is related to increased performance when people know they are being studied


Yerkes-Dodson law relates to :

an increase in performance when anxious.


Rorschach test is a projective test:

in that the test taker is expected to project feelings, either overtly or covertly, onto the inkblots and the results are then interpreted by the reviewer.


Spearman's g is the idea:

that there is one general intelligence.


When a person answers questions in a way they think they should, they are said to:

possess social desirability.


Cultural test bias is:

the phenomenon of a test's reliability measured with certain cultural elements.


Subjective interpretation bias occurs when:

a test taker determines personal meaning from test questions.


Stanford-Binet Test IQ ratings:

An IQ score of 130-144 is gifted. A score of 145 or greater is very gifted. The Stanford Binet does not use the term genius. A score of 100 is average. A score of 120 is superior. IQ is calculated by dividing mental age by chronological age and multiplying by 100.


In a cyclical test:

there are several sections that are spiral and the items become progressively more difficult as you move through the tests. Nearly all intelligence testing sections are spiral tests and the intelligence test themselves are cyclical.


Raymond Cattell developed the Culture Fair IQ test in the 1940s and in the process, determined that there were two distinct types of:

intelligence fluid and crystal.


Construct validity is:

the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure.


Criterion validity is :

based on specific variables and how one set of variables predicts an outcome on another set.


Predictive validity refers to:

the degree to which any measure can predict future or independent past events.


Reliability refers to:

how consistent a test is at measuring an attribute


Response bias is a general term for:

a wide range of tendencies for participants to respond inaccurately or falsely to questions.  Example: Filling out same answer to all questions on a test or survey


A valid test is always:

reliable. A valid test is one that measures what it claims to be measuring. A reliable test produces consistent results over time. A test can be reliable and measure something consistently but might not be valid if it measures something other than what it claims to measure. Increasing a test's length increases its reliability. Conversely, if you shorten a test, you reduce its reliability.


Examiner bias occurs when:

the examiner's expectations about the outcome of the experiment influence the participants. This can easily occur with projective tests, where a neutral stimuli is presented.


The purpose of an assessment in counseling is to:

collect information for the purpose of better defining a client's problem. Assessments are a part of the counseling process and are used to help identity the problem, plan interventions, evaluate progress and diagnose the client.


The difference between an assessment and a test is:

that an assessment focuses on gathering information and a test focuses on measurements of psychological constructs through the use of instruments


A measurement is:

the systemic procedure of assigning scores to determine the dimensions of human attributes, traits, characteristics or behaviors


The word evaluation is often used interchangeably with the word:

appraisal. Both words describe a tool used for measuring and making judgments regarding human attributes and behaviors.


The Becks Depression Inventory (BDI), was developed by:

The Becks Depression Inventory (BDI), was developed by psychologist Aaron Beck. The BDI is a self-reporting inventory questionnaire that measures the severity of depressive symptoms by asking the client to answer and rate a series of questions or statements that describe characteristics, attitudes and behaviors associated with depressive symptoms.


Psychological measurements are also referred to as:

psychometrics, which is the measurement of psychological variables and constructs


An achievement test measures:

how much knowledge, skill or information a person has achieved through training, instruction or experience.


An aptitude test is designed to:

assess a person's capability to perform. An aptitude test can be used to predict the ability of a person to be able to learn or perform given the right training or education. An aptitude test helps to predict a person's level of competency to perform a task.


The Barnum effect, also called the Forer effect, is a:

general description of a personality trait or characteristic that is so vague that it could apply to anyone. The term Barnum effect was named after P.T. Barnum who stated, "we've got something for everyone" The Barnum effect refers to the "gullibility" of subjects that identify with or select generally vague-statements that describes personality traits or attributes they believe apply or accurately describe them. The Barnum effect describes every test subject identifying with the same description despite their differences and uniqueness


Cognitive instruments are test that assess:

Cognition. Cognitive instruments are used in the testing or assessment of cognitive functions that involve skills related to intelligence, functioning, perceiving, processing, concrete and abstract thinking, and memorization.


A psychological construct is a variable that:

cannot be observed directly because it represents a tendency to behave in certain ways or a complex pattern of behavior and internal processes.


A standardized test is a testing instrument that is developed according to:

certain standards or established norms and has fixed directives for administering and scoring. Standardized tests are designed in ways that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures and interpretations are consistent and are administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner.


Sequential processing is the mental ability to:

arrange stimuli in sequential or serial order in which to process information. Cognitive instruments may test or measure sequential processing ability.


A Mental Status Examination (MSE) is an important part of the:

clinical assessment phase in counseling. A MSE is based on what the counselor observes about the client. It is a structured ways of observing and describing a client's current mental state for the purpose of making an accurate diagnosis and developing an effective treatment plan.


The mini-mental state examination is questionnaire used to assess for:

cognitive impairment. It can also be used to estimate the severity and progression of the cognitive impairment and follow any changes in the client over time. This is helpful tool in tracking the client's response to treatment.


Selected Response test:

Tests using multiple-choice, true and false or matching items are examples of selected response tests


Cultural test bias in testing or assessment occurs when:

test scores from one group of people significantly differ from the test scores of another group of people based upon cultural differences.


The focus of a power test is:

not the speed in which the person completes the test but is the ability of the test-taker to answer the most number of questions correctly. The questions in a power test are often arranged with less difficult questions at the beginning with difficulty levels increasing throughout the test.


In a subjective test or assessment people project their own:

subjective feelings, thoughts or perceptions as part of their response or answer. Scoring a subjective test requires judgment on behalf of the counselor when interpreting answers.


An objective test or assessment usually invokes an:

answer that is factual. For example, answers are either right or wrong, or a client can choose to answer yes or no, or agree or disagree to certain statements. The client or test-taker's answers are clear-cut and therefore require little or no judgment on the part of the counselor to score the test or assessment. The counselor is to be aware of the patterns of answers that can lead to a conclusion regarding a diagnosis.


Bias testing is the degree to which:

a test is designed or constructed to with irrelevant factors that systematically affect a specific group's performance. Also, the ways test results are interpreted and used that result in systematic disadvantages to certain minority groups. Identifying test bias requires and examination by the researchers or test developers to determine why one group does better or worse than another group on a particular test