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Flashcards in lastMinute Deck (52)
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Therapy Attributes: Pyschoanalytic

id, ego, and superego

id is pleasure principle

ego controlled by reality principle

superego is ethics

Techniques: free association, dream interpretation, transference ( client to you ), and countertransference (you to client)


Therapy Attributes: Object Relations Theory

based on psychoanalytic concepts

object is a significant person or thing

relation to objects shapes current interactions with people in reality and fantasy

development stages: fusion with mother, symbiosis with mother, separation/individuation, and constancy of self and object

attachment, borderline, and narcissistic disorders may occur if failure at development stages.


Therapy Attributes: Person Centered/Client Centered


focused on persons phenomenological world

process of becoming

relationship with client critical

unconditional positive regard, genuiness (congruence), and empathy


Therapy Attributes: Gestalt

based on existential principles

here and now


most important needs are at forefront (figure) and all other needs in background (ground)

when needs are met a gestalt is completed

goal to become complete human being and complete gestalts

keys: personal responsibility, unfinished business, and awareness of 'now'

uses confrontation!!

role playing with two-chair and dream work


Therapy Attributes: Individual Psychology

Adler and Driekurs

belief in uniqueness of individual that is influenced by social factors

we choose lifestyle or a unified plan such as habits, careers, and attitudes

Goals: help client understand lifestyle and identify social and community interest

overcome inferiority!!!

techniques: life histories, homework assignments, and paradoxical intentions


Therapy Attributes: Transactional Analysis

Eric Berne

three ego states: parent, adult, and child

life script develops in childhood and influences adults behavior

games are played that lead to intimacy avoidance

complementary transactions: adult to adult and lead to good communication

crossed transactions: adult to child/child to parent which leads to barrier to communication

goal of therapy: teach language and ideas of TA and recognize ego states functioning with ones own transactions

techniques: teaching concepts, help diagnose, interpretation, contracts, and confrontation


Therapy Attributes: Existential

May, Frankl, Yalom

based on phenomenology (study of our direct experiences)

freedom to choose and responsible for our fate

search for meaning and struggle with being alone

anxiety is threat to non-being

guilt occurs when we fail to fulfill our potential

goal: understand one's being, awareness, who one is, and who one is becoming

techniques: logotherapy (Frankl - concentration camp guy)

* freedom to choose what they do and how they react
* freedom of choice comes personal responsibility


Therapy Attributes: Cognitive and Behavioral Counseling

Wolpe, Meichenbaum, Beck, Bandura, Ellis, Lazarus

belief that behavior is learned and can be unlearned and relearned (stimulus response/stimulus organism response)

goals: identify antecedents (causal) of behavior and what reinforcements are maintaining that behavior.

techniques: operant and classical conditioning, social modeling, problem solving, direct training, reinforcement, and decision making


Therapy Attributes: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy


developed to treat borderline personality disorder

used now with wide range of disorders: traumatic brain injury, eating disorders, mood disorders. Good with bother adolescents and adults

group component compliments individual work

goal: help clients increase emotional/cognitive regulation by recognizing triggers that lead to behavior

DBT recognizes two sides of situations: need for accepting change and recognize resistance to change

DBT is longterm


mindfulness (nonjudgmental attention to present) and attend to ones emotions and senses.

distress tolerance: accept and tolerate onself and situation with evaluating

interpersonal effectivness: strategy for asking for what one needs, saying no, and coping with interpersonal conflict

emotional regulation: identify emotions and obstacles to change them, reduce vulnerability, and increase positive emotions


Therapy Attributes: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy:

Albert Ellis

self talk is the source of emotional disturbance

Its not the events that happen to us but how we interpret the events!

we have potential for rational thinking and we learn irrational beliefs as children which leads to inappropriate affect and behavior


A - activity or action
B - belief
C- consequent affect (rational or irrational)
D- disputing belief
E- effect (cognitive)


Therapy Attributes: Multimodal Therapy


considered holistic, eclectic, and has strong ties to behavior


B - behaviors
A - Affective responses
S - sensations
I - images
C - cognitions
I - interpersonal relationships
D - drugs (nutrition)


Therapy Attributes: Reality Therapy


based on choice theory (we control world around us to help satisfy our needs)

individuals determine their own fate and are in charge of own lives

perceptions control our behavior and we behave good/bad to fill needs

Five genetic needs: survival, love and belonging, power or achievement, freedom or independance, and fun.

characteristics: emphasis on choice and responsibility, reject transference (be yourself as therapist), therapy is in present as past is not critical, avoid focus on symptoms, challenge views and take solution focused approach


Therapy Attributes: Relational Cultural Theory

human growth develops in connection with others rather than through separation and individuation.

social connections are central

a need to move from human growth mode of separation to a relationship one


Therapy Attributes: Solution Focused Brief Therapy

does not address past experience or history of a problem.


Exception Question: what were the circumstances when the problem did not exist?

Miracle Question: if a miracle happened, how would you know and what would be different?

Scaling Question: scale anxiety and affect from 1 to 10. Focus on positive and duplicate or increase.

Focuses on specific goals, develop coping skills.


Therapy Attributes: Narrative Therapy

reality is based on language and words

independent reality exist through subjective experiences and client perspective is reality

clients live are stories in progress and stories use words and language which give meaning

stories are subjective and constructed by individuals in a context

techniques: questions and clarification, externalization and deconstructions, re-author, and document evidence through writing letters




primitive instinctual drives

only one present at birth

It is the source of a person's bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly their sexual and aggressive drives. The id contains the libido, which is the primary source of instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality. The id acts according to the "pleasure principle"—the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse —defined as seeking to avoid pain or unpleasure (not "displeasure") aroused by increases in instinctual tension.



both unconscious/conscious

acts in accordance with the reality principle

seeks to please the id in a realistic fashion

mediates the id's wants with reality

the ego is common sense

serves three masters: the external world, the id, and the superego

likened to being the rider of a horse

the ego is more aligned with the ego and allows things to slip. the superego catches this and feelings of guilt, anxiety, and inferiority take place. These feeling are overcome with defense mechanisms.



both unconscious/conscious

is a reflection of internalization of cultural rules from parents, teachers etc.

conscious and is the inner critic and also considered the father figure

superego demands may be polar opposite of the id which means the ego has to find middle ground

superego is formed from state of helplessness as a child and the Oedipus complex (gross)


Adler: Oldest Child

Gets much attention; tends to be dependable, hard-working, achievement oriented. When another child (intruder) comes, oldest may fear losing love


Adler: Second Child

Shares attention; sees self as if in a race to compete with first child; often succeeds where older fails.


Adler: Middle Child

Often feels left out; may see life as unfair; "poor me"
attitude; may develop problems.


Adler: Youngest Child

Baby in family; pampered; special role to play;
influenced by all others; tends to go own way; often develops in directions no one else thought of.


Adler: Only Child

does not learn to share or cooperate; often deals with adults well; wants center stage even as adult and if does not get it, may have difficulties.


Freud: oral

birth - 1 year

rooting, sucking with mouth, oral stimulation

develops a sense of trust with caregiver

child must be weened and less dependent of caregiver

fixation is drinking, eating, smoking, or/and nail biting


Freud: Anal

1 - 3 years

focus on libido to control bladder and bowel movements

must learn to control bodily needs

fixation at this stage could lead to a messy person or a anal retentive type


Freud: Phallic

3 to 6 years

focus on libido is genitals

children discover difference between male/female

boys view father as rival and boys fear castration

boy identify with same sex parent


Freud: Latency

6 to puberty

children develop social skills and relationships

sexual energy is dormant or repressed

fixation at this stage can lead to immaturity and inability to form fulfilling relationships as an adult


Freud: Genital

puberty to death

puberty reactivates the libido

strong sexual interest in opposite sex


Erikson: trust vs. mistrust

0 - 1.5



Erikson: autonomy vs. shame

1.5 - 3