Therapy Attributes: Pyschoanalytic
id, ego, and superego
id is pleasure principle
ego controlled by reality principle
superego is ethics
Techniques: free association, dream interpretation, transference ( client to you ), and countertransference (you to client)
Therapy Attributes: Object Relations Theory
based on psychoanalytic concepts
object is a significant person or thing
relation to objects shapes current interactions with people in reality and fantasy
development stages: fusion with mother, symbiosis with mother, separation/individuation, and constancy of self and object
attachment, borderline, and narcissistic disorders may occur if failure at development stages.
Therapy Attributes: Person Centered/Client Centered
focused on persons phenomenological world
process of becoming
relationship with client critical
unconditional positive regard, genuiness (congruence), and empathy
Therapy Attributes: Gestalt
based on existential principles
here and now
most important needs are at forefront (figure) and all other needs in background (ground)
when needs are met a gestalt is completed
goal to become complete human being and complete gestalts
keys: personal responsibility, unfinished business, and awareness of ‘now’
role playing with two-chair and dream work
Therapy Attributes: Individual Psychology
Adler and Driekurs
belief in uniqueness of individual that is influenced by social factors
we choose lifestyle or a unified plan such as habits, careers, and attitudes
Goals: help client understand lifestyle and identify social and community interest
techniques: life histories, homework assignments, and paradoxical intentions
Therapy Attributes: Transactional Analysis
three ego states: parent, adult, and child
life script develops in childhood and influences adults behavior
games are played that lead to intimacy avoidance
complementary transactions: adult to adult and lead to good communication
crossed transactions: adult to child/child to parent which leads to barrier to communication
goal of therapy: teach language and ideas of TA and recognize ego states functioning with ones own transactions
techniques: teaching concepts, help diagnose, interpretation, contracts, and confrontation
Therapy Attributes: Existential
May, Frankl, Yalom
based on phenomenology (study of our direct experiences)
freedom to choose and responsible for our fate
search for meaning and struggle with being alone
anxiety is threat to non-being
guilt occurs when we fail to fulfill our potential
goal: understand one’s being, awareness, who one is, and who one is becoming
techniques: logotherapy (Frankl - concentration camp guy)
- freedom to choose what they do and how they react
- freedom of choice comes personal responsibility
Therapy Attributes: Cognitive and Behavioral Counseling
Wolpe, Meichenbaum, Beck, Bandura, Ellis, Lazarus
belief that behavior is learned and can be unlearned and relearned (stimulus response/stimulus organism response)
goals: identify antecedents (causal) of behavior and what reinforcements are maintaining that behavior.
techniques: operant and classical conditioning, social modeling, problem solving, direct training, reinforcement, and decision making
Therapy Attributes: Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
developed to treat borderline personality disorder
used now with wide range of disorders: traumatic brain injury, eating disorders, mood disorders. Good with bother adolescents and adults
group component compliments individual work
goal: help clients increase emotional/cognitive regulation by recognizing triggers that lead to behavior
DBT recognizes two sides of situations: need for accepting change and recognize resistance to change
DBT is longterm
mindfulness (nonjudgmental attention to present) and attend to ones emotions and senses.
distress tolerance: accept and tolerate onself and situation with evaluating
interpersonal effectivness: strategy for asking for what one needs, saying no, and coping with interpersonal conflict
emotional regulation: identify emotions and obstacles to change them, reduce vulnerability, and increase positive emotions
Therapy Attributes: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy:
self talk is the source of emotional disturbance
Its not the events that happen to us but how we interpret the events!
we have potential for rational thinking and we learn irrational beliefs as children which leads to inappropriate affect and behavior
A - activity or action B - belief C- consequent affect (rational or irrational) D- disputing belief E- effect (cognitive)
Therapy Attributes: Multimodal Therapy
considered holistic, eclectic, and has strong ties to behavior
B - behaviors A - Affective responses S - sensations I - images C - cognitions I - interpersonal relationships D - drugs (nutrition)
Therapy Attributes: Reality Therapy
based on choice theory (we control world around us to help satisfy our needs)
individuals determine their own fate and are in charge of own lives
perceptions control our behavior and we behave good/bad to fill needs
Five genetic needs: survival, love and belonging, power or achievement, freedom or independance, and fun.
characteristics: emphasis on choice and responsibility, reject transference (be yourself as therapist), therapy is in present as past is not critical, avoid focus on symptoms, challenge views and take solution focused approach
Therapy Attributes: Relational Cultural Theory
human growth develops in connection with others rather than through separation and individuation.
social connections are central
a need to move from human growth mode of separation to a relationship one
Therapy Attributes: Solution Focused Brief Therapy
does not address past experience or history of a problem.
Exception Question: what were the circumstances when the problem did not exist?
Miracle Question: if a miracle happened, how would you know and what would be different?
Scaling Question: scale anxiety and affect from 1 to 10. Focus on positive and duplicate or increase.
Focuses on specific goals, develop coping skills.
Therapy Attributes: Narrative Therapy
reality is based on language and words
independent reality exist through subjective experiences and client perspective is reality
clients live are stories in progress and stories use words and language which give meaning
stories are subjective and constructed by individuals in a context
techniques: questions and clarification, externalization and deconstructions, re-author, and document evidence through writing letters
primitive instinctual drives
only one present at birth
It is the source of a person’s bodily needs, wants, desires, and impulses, particularly their sexual and aggressive drives. The id contains the libido, which is the primary source of instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality. The id acts according to the “pleasure principle”—the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse —defined as seeking to avoid pain or unpleasure (not “displeasure”) aroused by increases in instinctual tension.
acts in accordance with the reality principle
seeks to please the id in a realistic fashion
mediates the id’s wants with reality
the ego is common sense
serves three masters: the external world, the id, and the superego
likened to being the rider of a horse
the ego is more aligned with the ego and allows things to slip. the superego catches this and feelings of guilt, anxiety, and inferiority take place. These feeling are overcome with defense mechanisms.
is a reflection of internalization of cultural rules from parents, teachers etc.
conscious and is the inner critic and also considered the father figure
superego demands may be polar opposite of the id which means the ego has to find middle ground
superego is formed from state of helplessness as a child and the Oedipus complex (gross)
Adler: Oldest Child
Gets much attention; tends to be dependable, hard-working, achievement oriented. When another child (intruder) comes, oldest may fear losing love
Adler: Second Child
Shares attention; sees self as if in a race to compete with first child; often succeeds where older fails.
Adler: Middle Child
Often feels left out; may see life as unfair; “poor me”
attitude; may develop problems.
Adler: Youngest Child
Baby in family; pampered; special role to play;
influenced by all others; tends to go own way; often develops in directions no one else thought of.
Adler: Only Child
does not learn to share or cooperate; often deals with adults well; wants center stage even as adult and if does not get it, may have difficulties.
birth - 1 year
rooting, sucking with mouth, oral stimulation
develops a sense of trust with caregiver
child must be weened and less dependent of caregiver
fixation is drinking, eating, smoking, or/and nail biting
1 - 3 years
focus on libido to control bladder and bowel movements
must learn to control bodily needs
fixation at this stage could lead to a messy person or a anal retentive type
3 to 6 years
focus on libido is genitals
children discover difference between male/female
boys view father as rival and boys fear castration
boy identify with same sex parent
6 to puberty
children develop social skills and relationships
sexual energy is dormant or repressed
fixation at this stage can lead to immaturity and inability to form fulfilling relationships as an adult
puberty to death
puberty reactivates the libido
strong sexual interest in opposite sex
Erikson: trust vs. mistrust
0 - 1.5
Erikson: autonomy vs. shame
1.5 - 3
Erikson: initiative vs. guilt
3 - 5
Erikson: industry vs. inferiority
5 - 12
Erikson: identity vs. role confusion
12 - 18
Erikson: intimacy vs. isolation
18 - 40
Erikson: generativity vs. isolation
40 - 65
Erikson: ego integrity vs. despair
Kohlberg Stages: Pre-conventional
How can I avoid punishment?
What in it for me?
Kohlberg Stages: Conventional
Good boy / Good Girl attitude
Law and order mortality
Kohlberg Stages: Post-conventional
Universal Ethical Principles
birth - 2 years
The main achievement during this stage is object permanence - knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden.
It requires the ability to form a mental representation (i.e., a schema) of the object.
2 - 7 years
During this stage, young children can think about things symbolically. This is the ability to make one thing - a word or an object - stand for something other than itself.
Thinking is still egocentric, and the infant has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others.
Piaget: Concrete Operational
7 - 11 years
Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child’s cognitive development because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought.
This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).
Children can conserve number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9). Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes.
11 years and over
The formal operational stage begins at approximately age eleven and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts, and logically test hypotheses.
pick up toys—get a hug or a cookie.
This schedule can be continuous or variable.
reinforce after a fixed number of responses.
reinforce, on the average, after every nth (e.g. 5th) response.
reinforce after a fixed period of time.
reinforce, on the average, after every nth (e.g. 3rd) minute.
after a rest period, the conditioned response reappears
when the conditioned stimulus is again presented.
Once a response has been conditioned, stimuli that are
similar to the conditioned stimulus are also likely to elicit the