Cracking Ap Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Ap Government Exam Review > Cracking Ap Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cracking Ap Vocabulary Deck (36)
Loading flashcards...
0

Adversary system

A system of law where the court is seen as a neutral area where disputants can argue the merits of their cases

1

A system of law where the court is seen as a neutral area where disputants can argue the merits of their cases

Adversary system

2

Affirmative action

Government-mandated programs that seek to create special employment opportunities for African Americans, women, ad other victims of past discrimination

3

Government-mandated programs that seek to create special employment opportunities for African Americans, women, ad other victims of past discrimination

Affirmative action

4

Amendment

Addition to the constitution. Amendments require approval by two thirds of both houses if Congress ad three-quarters of the states. The first ten amendments make up the bill of rights

5

Addition to the constitution. Amendments require approval by two thirds of both houses if Congress ad three-quarters of the states. The first ten amendments make up the bill of rights

Amendment

6

Amicus curiae briefs

"Friend of the court" briefs that qualified individuals or organizations file in lawsuits to which they are not a party, so the judge may consider their advice in respect to matters of law that directly affect the cases in question.

7

"Friend of the court" briefs that qualified individuals or organizations file in lawsuits to which they are not a party, so the judge may consider their advice in respect to matters of law that directly affect the cases in question.

Amicus curiae briefs

8

Appellate jurisdiction

Term used to describe courts whose role is to hear appeals from lower courts

9

"Friend of the court" briefs that qualified individuals or organizations file in lawsuits to which they are not a party, so the judge may consider their advice in respect to matters of law that directly affect the cases in question.

Appellate jurisdiction

10

Articles of confederation

The United States' first constitution. The government formed by the articles of confederation lasted from 1781 (the year before the end of the revolutionary war) to 1789. The government under the articles proved inadequate because it did not have the power to collect taxes from the states, nor could it regulate foreign trade to generate revenue from import and export tariffs.

11

The United States' first constitution. The government formed by the articles of confederation lasted from 1781 (the year before the end of the revolutionary war) to 1789. The government under the articles proved inadequate because it did not have the power to collect taxes from the states, nor could it regulate foreign trade to generate revenue from import and export tariffs.

Articles of confederation

12

Bicameral

Consisting of two legislative houses. The United States has a bicameral legislature; it's two houses are the House of Representatives and the Senate.

13

Consisting of two legislative houses. The United States has a bicameral legislature; it's two houses are the House of Representatives and the Senate.

Bicameral

14

Bill of rights

First 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The Bill of Rights guarantees personal liberties and limits the powers of the government.

15

Blanket primary

Primary election in which voters may select a candidate from any party for each office. Blanket primaries use the same procedure as general elections.

16

Block grants

Federal money given to the dates with only general guidelines for its use. The states have the authority to decide how the money will be spent.

17

Bread-and-butter issues

Those political issues are specifically directed at the daily concerns of most working-class Americans, such a job security , tax rates, wages, and employee benefits.

18

Broad constructionism

Belief that the Constitution should be interpreted loosely when concerning the restrictions it places on federal power. Broad constructionists emphasize the importance of the elastic clause, whichever Congress to pass laws "necessary and proper" to the performance of its duties.

19

Brown v. Board of education

The 1954 case in which the Supreme Court overturned the "separate but equal" standard as it pooled to education. In a 9-0 decision, the court ruled that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." "Separate but equal" had been the law of the land since the court approved it in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

20

Budget deficit

Condition that arises when federal expenditures exceed revenues; in other words, when the government spends more money that it takes in.

21

Budget resolution

Set of budget guidelines that must pass both houses of congress in identical form by April 15. The budget resolution guides government spending for the following fiscal year.

22

Categorical grants

Federal aid given to states with strings attached. To recur e the money, states must agree to adhere to federally mandated guidelines for spending it.

23

Caucus

Meeting of local party members for the purpose of choosing delegates to a national party convention. The term also refers to a meeting of the democratic members of the House of Representatives.

24

Census

The process, mandated by the Constitution, by which the population of the United States is officially counted every 10 years. Census data is then used to help distribute federal money and to reapportion congressional districts.

25

The system that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful by requiring the approval of more than one branch for all important acts.

Checks and balances

26

Civil court

Court in which lawsuits are heard. In contrast, criminal cases are heard in Criminal court.

27

Civil disobedience

Nonviolent vil des obedience requires activists to protest peacefully against laws they believe unjust and to be willing to accept arrest as a means if demonstrating the justice of their cause. The notion was popularized by nineteenth-venture American writer David Thoreau and was practiced by Martin Luther King Jr.

28

Civil liberties

Those protections against government pier embodied in the Bill of Rights and similar legislation. Civil liberties include the right to fee speech, free exercise if religion, and the right to a fair trial.

29

Civil rights

Those protections against discrimination by the government and individuals. Civil rights are intended to prevent discrimination based on race, religion, gender, ethnicity, physical handicap, or sexual orientation