Flashcards in Cracking The AP Exam Deck (49)
What was the enlightenment?
An eighteenth century philosophical movement that began in Western Europe with roots in the scientific revolution.
Hobbes's famous work Leviathan argues that if humans were left to their own devices, chaos and violence would ensue. In a state of nature, life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short." He argues that the best way to protect life was to give total power to an absolute monarch
Concerned primarily with the protection of kife
Argued in his Second Treatise on Civil Government that liberty and property were natural rights granted by God; it was the duty of all governments to respect and protect these rights. If the government do not, Locke contended, the citizens have the right of revolution
Charles de Montesquieu
Montesquieu was a French philosopher who greatly influence the founders. His The Spirit of the Laws advocated for the separation of power into three branches of government.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Rousseau argued that the only good government was one that was freely formed with the consent of the people. The consent was shown in a powerful "social contract," which was an agreement among people.
What was the predecessor to the constitution?
The articles of xondereration
Notable accomplishments of the articles (4)
Won the revolutionary war
Established northwest ordinance, creating methods by which new dates would enter the union
Negotiated the treaty that ended the revolutionary war
Set the precedent of federalism, whereby the states and central government shared governing responsibilities
What was shays rebellion?
A six month rebellion in which more than 1000 armed farmers attacked a federal arsenal to protest the foreclosure of farms in the western part of the state
Could the federal government drafts soldiers?
Was the federal government completely dependent in state legislatures for revenue?
Yes, the federal government was not permitted to tax citixeba
Could the federal government pay of the revolutionary war debt?
Could the federal government control interstate trade?
Did the federal government have a Supreme Court to interpret law?
Did the federal government have an executive branch to enforce law?
Did the federal government have national currency?
Did the federal government have control over import and export taxes imposed between states?
Did the federal government need unanimity to amend the articles?
The federal government needed approval from how many of the 13 states to pass legislation?
How did Charles ears see the constitutional convention?
An elitist conspiracy to protect the wealth of the rich
What was the Virginia plan?
A recipe for a strong government with each state represented proportionately to its population
What was the New Jersey plan?
Plan under which each state would be represented equally
What was the great (Connecticut) compromise
a bicameral legislature with a house of representatives based on population and a senate with equal representation for all states.
What was the three fifths compromise?
Slaves would count as three fifths of a person when apportioning votes
Why did the framers create the Supreme Court?
In order to arbitrate disputes between the Congress and the president, between states, and between the states and the central government
What is the primary source for understanding the original inter of the framers?
The federalist papers
What were the federalist papers designed to do?
To persuade the dates of the wisdom of a strong central government coupled with autonomous political power retained by the states
What was the opposition to to constitution centered around?
The lack of a bill of rghta
Whatbibthe necessary and proper clause also known as?
The elastic clause
Are executive orders me tions in the constitution?