Flashcards in DD Bio ques 100 onward Deck (95):
Did Darwin know about molecular genetics and mutations?
If no fertilization occurs, the Corpus Luteum breaks down into?
a type of estrogen
What do progesterone and estrogen do?
allow for blood vessels to grow and uterine lining to prepare for implantation of egg
What stimulates production of progesterone and estradiol by corpus luteum?
If no fertilization, LH will decrease, progesterone levels fall, the uterine wall will?
breakdown and menstruation begins
Are protaglandins endocrine hormones?
No. Prostaglandins are not endocrine hormones, but autocrine or paracrine, which are locally acting messenger molecules. They differ from hormones in that they are not produced at a discrete site but in many places throughout the human body
Where does fertilization of the egg normally occur?
What does the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone do?
prevents corpus luteum from breaking down.
membrane bound sacs involved in packaging of glycoproteins
Oocyte dev is halted at what stage?
Prophase 1 of meiosis until female reaches puberty.
transfer of DNA by virus.
Menstrual cycle includes:
follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, menstruation
reproductive hormones are at their lowest in which phase?
First meiotic division is not complete until?
Second meiotic division of follicle is not complete until?
Initiation of heart beat is largely controlled by?
What is SA node?
Pacemaker, it delivers electrical impulse at regular intervals that allow the heart to beat.
Examples of chordates which are not vertebrates?
amphioxus and tunicates and lancelets. They have notochords but no backbones.
have notochord at least some time during dev.
Offspring develops within uterus. Opposite of a monetreme.
Both superior and inferior vena cava carry deoxygenated blood from where to where?
from upper and lower extremities respectively to the right atria
Initiator codon for m-RNA in prokaryotes?
AUG and f-Met-t-RNA at the proper site on the ribosome.
What amino acid is used in eukaryotes for initiation during protein synthesis?
Methionine, not N-formylmethionine
Molecular chaperones function?
prevent aggregation of newly formed proteins until they can properly fold.
Which hormones stimulate secretion of bile?
Cholecystokinin, made by duodenum cells.
Secretin, cholecystokinin, gastrin, enterogastrone, bile
Secretin : made in duodenum, stimulates production of pancreatic juice, esp the bicarbonate portion.
Cholecystokinin: made in duodenum, stimulates production of bile.
Entergastrone: made in duodenum when fatty food is present, inhibits stomach gland secretion, slows stomach's muscular movement, slowing stomach's emptying, to allow more time for digestion.
Gastrin: made in stomach, stimulates HCl secretion.
Bile: made in the liver.
Breathing rate is greatly sensitive to?
Blood CO2 and H+ ion concentration.
Chemoreceptors where are involved in blood gas content monitoring?
Aorta and carotid arteries
Small increase in H+ or CO2 will ___ breathing rate?
High blood O2 partial pressure will ___ breathing rate?
In the fetus, oxygenated blood from the placenta can bypass the liver thanks to the?
Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus
foramen ovale: blood enters left atria directly from right atria, bypassing the lung.
Ductus arteriosus: blood from pulmonary artery directly to the aorta, by passing the lungs.
divides brain hemispheres, allows r and l brain to communicate,
What is considered the prime end product of photosynthesis
During light reaction, a high ___ concen is produced in the thylakoids.
Where does the dark reaction occur?
Stroma of chloroplasts.
PGAL is made from what during the dark reaction?
CO2 and ribulose.
how many ATP and NADPH are used for each CO2 molecule that becomes carbohydrate during Calvin cycle?
3 ATP and 2 NADPH
During the dark reaction, CO2 becomes attached to ___ , which then breaks down to yield PGAL
What cycle takes CO2 from atmosphere and energy from ATP and NADPH to create glucose?
Takes six turns of Calvin cycle to create one glucose molecule.
Haversian systems (where blood vessels and nerves pass through) belong in which type of bone?
Appendicular skeleton contains?
Pelvic, pectoral girdle, arms, legs.
Axial skeleton contains?
Skull, vertebrae, and ribs
is the largest Molluscan class, includes slugs, snails
Crustacean: crab, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, barnacles
Arachnida: spiders, ticks, scorpions, mites
Cephalopoda: octopus and squid.
regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood, is produced in liver.
Where does destruction of worn out old RBCs, bile production, conversion of nitrogenous waste to urea, and glycogen storage occur?
Cacti and euphorbs are classic ex of?
loss of water from evaporation from leaves.
attachment of all or a portion of one chromosome to another.
Resting condition in the life of an insect. Similar to vertebrate's hibernation.
What does ADH (vasopressin) do?
increase permeability of collecting duct wall to water, promoting water resorption, increasing blood volume. If did not have enough ADH (vasopressin), the walls of collecting duct will be practically impermeable to water, forcing water to be excreted through collecting duct, resulting in large quantities of urine. This is seen in diabetes insidipus. (if sugar were in the urine, this is characteristic of diabetes mellitus).
Where does most of the resorption occur in the nephron? where excretion?
Proximal convoluted tubule: resorption
Distal convoluted tubule: secretion occurs. K+, H+ by active transport, NH3 by diffusion. H+ secretion regulates blood pH.
Urine leaves the kidney via?
Ureters. Ureters carry urine to the urinary bladder. Urine is stored there until voided through the urethra.
Synthesis of mRNA is done by what enzyme?
Kangaroo rat eats seeds that are __ in fat and carbohydrates?
High in fat and carbs, low in protein. Oxidation of this fat provides the needed water for survival.
High level of amino acid phenylalanine in blood. Mental retardation. Homozygous recessive, lacking enzyme for phenylalanine metabolism. Must maintain diet low in phenylalanine.
What gives rise to lens of eye?
In muscle cells, sarcoplasmic reticulum does what?
stores and release Ca2+ from the terminal cisternae
Where does electron transport chain occur?
Inner membrane of mitochondria
Is there Kreb cycle in RBC?
No. RBC lacks mitochondria. Derives energy from glycolysis and anaerobic respiration occurs in cytosol.
As we increase the degree of unsaturation, i.e. increase fatty acids with double bond, fluidity increases and melting point decreases (the cis-double bond puts a kink into the molecule and prevents it from tightly packing into a crystal.
In a warmer environment, the organism would want to increase its degree of saturated fatty acids so the membrane does not get too fluid like.
Do prokaryotes have cholesterol in their membrane?
Individual lipid molecules can diffuse freely in a lateral fashion where?
within the bilayer surface.
Identical twins v.s. fraternal twins?
Identical twins: from indeterminate cleavage
Fraternal twins: from two egs fertilized independently of each other.
precursor of placenta, consists of double layer of cells
impulse jumps from node to node
Retina of the eye contains
Visual purple (Rhodopsin), a light sensitive pigmen in the rods of the retina.
(cones contain pigments which absorb red, green and blue wavelengths)
Most enzymatic hydrolysis occurs where?
First macromolecules to undergo enzymatic hydrolysis in the digestive tract are?
Nutrient rich blood is conveyed first through what?
Hepatic portal vessel to the liver. In the liver, excess glucose is stored as glycogen. It will also remove excess amino acids from blood to prevent tissue damage. Blood will leave liver to go to the heart then to body. (villi -> blood stream -> hepatic portal vessel -> liver -> heart -> body).
As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, it becomes more concentrated due to passive flow of H20 out of the tube. As it moves up the loop, it becomes ___ ?
more dilute due to passive and active transport of salts out of the tubule. The interstitial fluids surrounding the nephron are more concentrated with salts. The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to water.
Is the ascending loop of Henle different from the descending loop in terms of water permeability?
Yes, the descending loop is permeable but the ascending one is impermeable to water.
Which organelles have their own DNA and may have originated from symbiotic prokaryotes?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Where do B-cells develop?
In the fetal liver and spleen. (do they mature in bones?)
What will bile do?
emulsify fats and contains sodium bicarbonate.
Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. Examples of such differences include differences in morphology, size, ornamentation, and behavior.
having only one single copy of a gene, as in a man that carries an allele on the X chromosome
Similar basic anatomical structures with same evolutionary origin but different functions are called?
Similar function but different evolutionary origin are called?
chromosomes are called chromosomes after chromatin has already done the duplication to form them. After metaphase, each chromatid is called a chromosome. During interphase when they are replicated, they will become chromosomes which have two sister chromatids each.
2 chromatids connected at centromere.
Give examples of class Aves, class Chondrichthys, Agnatha
Chondrichthys: sharks, skates
Agnatha: hagfish and lamprey
Polymerase Chain Reaction: quickest way to clone DNA
Where does Kreb cycle occur?
Matrix of mitochondria
How many NADH, FADH2 and GTP are produced per turn of Kreb cycle?
3 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 GTP per turn.
One molecule of glucose produces how many turns of kreb cycle?
Examples of amphibians
Salamanders, frogs, toads
Osteichthys: bony fish
Agnatha: fish that lack bones and scales and fins. Example: hagfish and lamprey.
Birds are most likely descendents of?
Bacteria do not have mitochondria so what respiration processes can they do?
Glycolysis and they have their own electron transport system.
When does crossing over happen?
Prophase 1 of meiosis.
What form will a dihybrid cross have?
RrWw x RrWw. We get a 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio.