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A2 Sociology > Definitions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Definitions Deck (46):
1

Age patriarchy

How older people exercise power over the young - eg legislation

2

Alienation

How workers experience their work as separate from them, work does not satisfy them or their inherent creativity

3

Assimilation

Theory that minority ethnic groups would take in the culture of the dominant group

4

Attrition

Usually linked to longitudinal studies, the loss of sampling units from the sample group as a result of moving away, death or loss of interest

5

Boundary problem

The question of who should and who should not be included in the middle class, where to draw the line

6

Canalization

The process of channelling children's interests to gender specific toys

7

Cohort study

Research on people who share a certain characteristic - often age

8

Concrete ceiling

Relates to the experiences of black and Asian women who are not told what they could aspire too - cannot see through a 'glass ceiling'

9

Conflict view

A theory stating that society is made up of groups who have fundamentally different interests

10

Contradictory class position

Associated with Wright, neo-Marxist who argues that managers find themselves caught between the bourgeoisie who exploit them and the proletariat whom they control

11

Dual labour market

Two labour markets - the primary labour market where jobs are secure and the secondary labour market in which jobs are less secure and often part time or casual

12

Elite self recruitment

The ways in which those at the top of society work to ensure that new recruits come from within their own class

13

Embourgeoisement

A process of taking on the characteristics of the bourgeoisie or middle class in terms of culture, values or beliefs; the embourgeoisement theory was tested by Goldthorpe and Lockwood on the car workers in Luton in the 1960s

14

Ethnic penalty

The disadvantages coming from being a member of a particular ethnic group

15

Ethnography

The study of people in their natural environment using qualitative methods, esp observation

16

Expressive roles

Parsons argues women are in these caring and nurturing roles

17

Fragmentation

Breaking up into small pieces; may refer to social classes break up identities

18

Fuel poverty

Household having to spend more than 10% of its income on energy

19

Gatekeeper

The person or persons who are able to give a researcher access to people they want to study

20

Go native

When researcher becomes so involved with the group being studied that they lose sight of their role as a researcher (associated with ethnographic researcher)

21

Grey power

Influence of the elderly often linked to financial power but also in relation to their social and political influence

22

Hybridity

The development of cultures based on the combination of aspects of a range of cultures including music food and clothes

23

Insider status

Belonging to a group, having access to the groups secrets or knowledge

24

Interviewer effect

How social characteristics of an interviewer affect responses of the interviewee

25

Leaky pipeline

Refers to gradual loss of women in higher levels of an occupational area

26

Lumpenproletariat

A Marxist term used to describe those below the proletariat

27

Mask of aging

Postmodern view of aging - at any age people can appear similar to those of other age groups

28

Methodological pluralism

An approach usually in two stages - methods used being on equal status; a strategy often used by realists who want to study different aspects of the research question

29

Operationalise

To measure abstract concepts by defining them in research

30

Proletarianisation

de-skilling of white collar jobs

31

Racialised

The view that in any class minority ethnic groups wi be of a lower status within the class compared to the dominant white group

32

Reflexivity

The willingness of the researcher to consider the implications the researcher might be having on those being researched - a strategy used by feminists

33

Respondent validation

Most commonly used by interpretivits who ask those they are researching to look at their findings and give feedbacks

34

Semiology

The study of signs and symbols in order to decode and understand the messages contained in the text

35

Sift and sort

A concept used by Davis and Moore to describe the ways in which people are allocated roles in society via examinations or other competitive means

36

Social cohesion

Idea that everyone is valued there are common values and beliefs that bind people together

37

Social construction

View that the social world is made by social processes (eg interpretivists argue that questionnaires are socially constructed by the researchers designed them and argue that crime statistics are a result of the decisions made by the police)

38

Structural constraints

Individuals are prevented from making free choices eg by household income

39

Unified working class

Traditional Marxist view that there is one united working class

40

Access

Ability to contact the group to be studied - can be difficult when the group is closed or 'deviant'

41

Actuarialism

The idea that social control is more about the identification and management of unruly groups, not catching criminals

42

Cultural transmission

Values passed from one generation to the next

43

Edgework

Lyng's idea that crime provides thrills, explaining 'non-utilitarian'/trivial crimes

44

Recidivism

Repeat offending

45

Target hardening

Making it more difficult to commit crime, eg more home security

46

Value judgements

Judgements based on principles and beliefs