Flashcards in Inequality - Social Class Deck (55):
'Health gradient' means more chance of ill health lower down the social hierarchy
Health gradient is caused by income inequality - eh stress
Poor health is a result of life hazards we have no choice in (eg poor diet and housing)
How much higher is long standing illness for wc compared to mc?
How much higher is infant mortality in wc families?
How many years more active life do the ONS say the mc have?
What has happened to the gap between life expectancy for professionals and wc?
It has grown even though average life expectancy has gone up
How much more likely are the wc to die from heart disease or cancer?
Sutton Trust (2007) - private schools and oxbridge
7% go to private schools but 45% of these go to Oxbridge
70th brightest pupil at Eton as likely to go to Oxbridge as the brightest at state
What is the % A*C for the top and bottom income 25% of districts?
top 25% - 72%
Bottom 25% - 38%
Identified old boys network which formed a power bloc in the top institutions
Hidden curriculum (bordieu) of private schools prepares for leadership, state encourages conformity and obedience
How many from wc vs professional backgrounds go to post-16 education?
Unskilled - 50%
Professional - over 90%
More wc stay at unis close to home to cut debts
70% vs 30% of mc students
Smith and Noble (1995)
Barriers to education exist for wc children due to material deprivation
Campos and Leech (2004)
'Selection by mortgage' - homes near to good schools go up by around £25000
Streaming is based on cultural capital not ability
A-c economy - channellig into vocational subjects
What fraction of children on FSM get 5A*-C GCSEs?
1/3 on FSM, 2/3 not on FSM
Restricted / elaborated code
Parents of wc have less value for education so support their children less
Mc are more able to support education and form relationships with teachers
Wc 4 values of 'fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present time orientation' prevent educational achievement - like miller's focal concerns
'Social inequalities are written in the body' - more occupational hazards in wc jobs mean more illness
Media representations of the middle-class as meritocratic reinforces the false class consciousness, hiding and perpetuating social inequality
Media representations of the middle class accurately reflect how media consumers perceive their society
Dodd and Dodd
Eastenders portrays a supportive and nostalgic w/c community
W/c are often portrayed in the media in an unflattering and pitying light
W/c are either portrayed as 'happy and deserving poor' or benefit scrougers
The term 'chav' is used to condemn w/c culture and people
Golding and Middleton
Media demonisation of the underclass justifies welfare cuts
Shows (for example Benefits Street) are 'poverty porn' - they do not cause empathy from viewers
Lea and Young (ICS)
In deprived areas there is more victimisation, 1/3 of people are affected by serious crime in last year
1/4 always avoided going out after dark
28% felt unsafe in their own homes
Mistrust of police reduced reporting
Felson and Clarke
Criticize zero tolerance policing for focusing on the working class, ignoring powerful.
Surveillance and situational prevention displaces crime to working class areas
Joseph Rowntree Foundation
Poverty and joining a gang were linked: gave people a higher sense of belonging but also increased victimisation and reduced life chances
Police are an occupying force imposed upon the w/c - they are a repressive state apparatus used to prevent revolution
The police canteen culture sees working class youths as their main targets
Morgan and Russell
70% of high court magistrates are from professional backgrounds
Middle class and upper class crime tends to be white collar/occupational crime - is less visible and taken less seriously
Corporate crime is taken less seriously than street crime; laws reflect the economic and political interest of large corporations and capitalism
Reporting of corporate crimes is 'mystified'
Tombs and Whte (P/V)
Media see corporate crime as 'dull' so report it less. Also more likely to be seen as a 'scandal or abuse' not a crime
Police act upon stereotypical assumptions of what is the typical deviant/delinquent - often working class
The Institute for Fiscal Studies
Income equality is now at its highest since 1940,
top 10% of earners receive 40% of income,
bottom 10% only receive 3%
ONS 2012 (Wealth)
Wealthiest half of population have 90% of all wealth
(May lack validity; it is in the interests of the wealthy to hide their wealth from the government)
The Times Rich List 2012 (wealth)
The richest 200 families in the UK have $225 billion wealth
Inherited wealth is increasing, 1/3 all wealth is inherited
Found a child born to a labourer is 6 time more likely to suffer from extreme poverty than that of a lawyer
identified a precariat (linked to Barron and Norris)
In 2013 which % of people were living in poverty?
21% in relative poverty (including 27% of all children)
Unified upper class which practise social closure
Globalization has led to a decline in men's work and a culture of unemployment and suffering
Ethnographic study of a group of homeless people, found they did not have 'subcultural values' but suffered due to structural values