Inequality - Social Class Flashcards Preview

A2 Sociology > Inequality - Social Class > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inequality - Social Class Deck (55):
1

(Health)
Marmot (1991)

'Health gradient' means more chance of ill health lower down the social hierarchy

2

(Health)
Wilkinson (1996)

Health gradient is caused by income inequality - eh stress

3

(Health)
Shaw (1999)

Poor health is a result of life hazards we have no choice in (eg poor diet and housing)

4

(Health)
How much higher is long standing illness for wc compared to mc?

50%

5

How much higher is infant mortality in wc families?

2 x

6

(Health)
How many years more active life do the ONS say the mc have?

17

7

(Health)
What has happened to the gap between life expectancy for professionals and wc?

It has grown even though average life expectancy has gone up

8

How much more likely are the wc to die from heart disease or cancer?

2 times

9

(Education)
Sutton Trust (2007) - private schools and oxbridge

7% go to private schools but 45% of these go to Oxbridge
70th brightest pupil at Eton as likely to go to Oxbridge as the brightest at state

10

(Education)
What is the % A*C for the top and bottom income 25% of districts?

top 25% - 72%
Bottom 25% - 38%

11

(Education)
Scott (1992)

Identified old boys network which formed a power bloc in the top institutions

12

(Education)
Roker (1994)

Hidden curriculum (bordieu) of private schools prepares for leadership, state encourages conformity and obedience

13

How many from wc vs professional backgrounds go to post-16 education?

Unskilled - 50%
Professional - over 90%

14

(Education)
Reay (2005)

More wc stay at unis close to home to cut debts
70% vs 30% of mc students

15

(Education)
Smith and Noble (1995)

Barriers to education exist for wc children due to material deprivation

16

(Education)
Campos and Leech (2004)

'Selection by mortgage' - homes near to good schools go up by around £25000

17

(Education)
Ball (1981)

Streaming is based on cultural capital not ability

18

Education
Gilborn

A-c economy - channellig into vocational subjects

19

What fraction of children on FSM get 5A*-C GCSEs?

1/3 on FSM, 2/3 not on FSM

20

(Education)
Bernstein

Restricted / elaborated code

21

Education
Douglas (1964)

Parents of wc have less value for education so support their children less

22

Education
Feinstein (2008)

Mc are more able to support education and form relationships with teachers

23

Education
Sugarman (1970)

Wc 4 values of 'fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present time orientation' prevent educational achievement - like miller's focal concerns

24

(Health)
Bottero (2005)

'Social inequalities are written in the body' - more occupational hazards in wc jobs mean more illness

25

(Media)
Marxist view

Media representations of the middle-class as meritocratic reinforces the false class consciousness, hiding and perpetuating social inequality

26

(Media)
Pluralist view

Media representations of the middle class accurately reflect how media consumers perceive their society

27

Dodd and Dodd
(Media)

Eastenders portrays a supportive and nostalgic w/c community

28

(Media)
Newman

W/c are often portrayed in the media in an unflattering and pitying light

29

(Media)
Devereux

W/c are either portrayed as 'happy and deserving poor' or benefit scrougers

30

(Media)
Jones

The term 'chav' is used to condemn w/c culture and people

31

(Media)
Golding and Middleton

Media demonisation of the underclass justifies welfare cuts

32

(Media)
Price

Shows (for example Benefits Street) are 'poverty porn' - they do not cause empathy from viewers

33

(Policing/Victimisation)
Lea and Young (ICS)

In deprived areas there is more victimisation, 1/3 of people are affected by serious crime in last year
1/4 always avoided going out after dark
28% felt unsafe in their own homes
Mistrust of police reduced reporting

34

(P/V)
Felson and Clarke

Criticize zero tolerance policing for focusing on the working class, ignoring powerful.
Surveillance and situational prevention displaces crime to working class areas

35

Joseph Rowntree Foundation
(P/V)

Poverty and joining a gang were linked: gave people a higher sense of belonging but also increased victimisation and reduced life chances

36

(P/V)
Scraton

Police are an occupying force imposed upon the w/c - they are a repressive state apparatus used to prevent revolution

37

Reiner
(P/V)

The police canteen culture sees working class youths as their main targets

38

Morgan and Russell
(P/V)

70% of high court magistrates are from professional backgrounds

39

Croall
(P/V)

Middle class and upper class crime tends to be white collar/occupational crime - is less visible and taken less seriously

40

Tombs
(P/V)

Corporate crime is taken less seriously than street crime; laws reflect the economic and political interest of large corporations and capitalism

41

Box (P/V)

Reporting of corporate crimes is 'mystified'

42

Tombs and Whte (P/V)

Media see corporate crime as 'dull' so report it less. Also more likely to be seen as a 'scandal or abuse' not a crime

43

Cicourel (P/V)

Police act upon stereotypical assumptions of what is the typical deviant/delinquent - often working class

44

The Institute for Fiscal Studies
(Wealth)

Income equality is now at its highest since 1940,
top 10% of earners receive 40% of income,
bottom 10% only receive 3%

45

ONS 2012 (Wealth)

Wealthiest half of population have 90% of all wealth
(May lack validity; it is in the interests of the wealthy to hide their wealth from the government)

46

The Times Rich List 2012 (wealth)

The richest 200 families in the UK have $225 billion wealth

47

Tony Atkinson
(wealth)

Inherited wealth is increasing, 1/3 all wealth is inherited

48

Feinstein
(wealth)

Found a child born to a labourer is 6 time more likely to suffer from extreme poverty than that of a lawyer

49

Guy Standing
(wealth)

identified a precariat (linked to Barron and Norris)

50

In 2013 which % of people were living in poverty?

21% in relative poverty (including 27% of all children)

51

Scott
(wealth)

Unified upper class which practise social closure

52

Charlesworth
(wealth)

Globalization has led to a decline in men's work and a culture of unemployment and suffering

53

Blackman
(wealth)

Ethnographic study of a group of homeless people, found they did not have 'subcultural values' but suffered due to structural values

54

Hutton
(wealth)

30:30:40 thesis

55

Bradley
(wealth)

polarization between the rich and poor