Flashcards in Sociological Theories on Class Deck (36):
What did Durkheim suggest?
There is a specialised division of labour
What did Parsons think?
Education provides role allocation; there is agreement/consensus about stratification
What did Davis and Moore suggest?
Stratification (and social inequality) is necessary and functional
What did Merton add?
The idea of strain
What is a positive evaluation of Functionalism?
In general there is agreement - people do accept the may given to certain jobs and aspire to them
It is useful to explain anomie
Educational opportunities = social mobility
What did Durkheim think of inherited wealth (Functionalism)?
Inherited wealth was unfair and should be abolished
What is a negative evaluation of Functionalism?
Some essential obs are poorly paid (eg nurses) and there is outrage against 'fat cat' salaries
Social closure and private schools - Functionalists ignore power differences
Merton - some aspects of society are dysfunctional (internal critique)
Davis and Moore ignore the damaging effects of stratification
What did Tumin say about university?
It is used by wealthier groups to maintain power
What did Saunders suggest? (New Right)
Capitalism and stratification leads to innovation and higher living standards; education represents equal opportunities; the poor see poverty as a 'choice'
What did Murray suggest? (New Right)
Underclass are the 'new rabble', with distinct cultural values such as welfare dependency and crime; top salaries are justified and deserves; class has declined in importance due to higher equality
What is a positive evaluation of the New Right?
NR views are useful to consider progress made in equality
What is a negative evaluation of the New Right?
Ignores structral barriers created by poverty
Coates and Silburn - found the cycle of deprivation and poverty is cumulative
Marxists - the underclass are NOT a distinctive group, capitalism creates poverty
What did Coates and Silburn find?
The cycle of deprivation - poverty is cumulative
What do Bowles and Gintis find? (Marxism)
Institutions such as educatio work on behalf of the ruling class to create passive conformity
What is a positive evalutation of Marxism?
Braverman - proletarianization (the deskilling of workers)
What is a negative evaluation of Marxism?
It is economically deterministic
Marx did not predict the growth in the middle class
Postmodernism - it is a dated metanarrative
What does Neo-Marxism consider?
The role of culture and ideology (ISA/RSA and hegemony) and the growth of the middle class, adds action theory
What did Harvey find (Neo-Marxism)?
Globalization has allowed the expansion of capitalism
What did Bourdieu suggest?
'Cultural capital' - class boundaries are more than just a relationship to the economy
What did Gramsci say? (Neo-Marxist)
'Hegemony' is how the powerful manipulate institutions
What did Hall find (Neo-Marxism)
The moral panic about black muggers showed the influence of the media
What did Marcuse add (Neo-Marxism)
The idea of advertising creating false needs
How did Althusser explain the lack of a revolution (Neo-Marxism)?
Education reinforces hegemonic identity through the hidden curriculum
What does Zaretsky suggest (Neo-Marxism)?
Family reinforces hegemonic identity
What did Bravermen suggest (Neo-Marxism)?
Proletarianization disempowers workers
What did Guy Standing find?
What did Wright find? (neo-Marxism)
There are 4 layers of power - full, partial, minimal, or none
Adds middle class to N-M
Name three Weberian theorists and their view on class
Scott - unified upper class who practice social closure
Rex and Tomlinson - identify an underclass which lacks status and party
Barron and Norris - dual labour market
What are the three aspects of inequality identified by Weber?
What is a positive evaluation of Weberian theory?
It explains the growth in/fragmentation of the middle class
Influenced postmodern ideas about consumption choices
Explains the lack of revolution
Seeing class and status as separate explains social closure
Explains non-class inequality (Gender/age/ethnicity)
Party - considers the importance of social contacts
What is a negative evaluation of Weberian theory?
Marxists see the smaller divisions as unimportant, the main division is between the working and ruling classes, also think status and class correlate so see no need to study them separately
Feminists think it underestimates gender inequality
Postmodernists see it as a 'metanarrative'
What does Lyotard (postmod) say?
All other theories are metanarratives - each individual will have a different experience
What does Modood say (postmod)?
Hybrid identities are based on negotiation, not just class
What does Hall suggest (postmod)?
Class is no longer a 'master identity'
What is a positive evaluation of Postmodernism?
Savage - showed most people do not identify with a class