Sociological Theories on Class Flashcards Preview

A2 Sociology > Sociological Theories on Class > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sociological Theories on Class Deck (36):

What did Durkheim suggest?

There is a specialised division of labour


What did Parsons think?

Education provides role allocation; there is agreement/consensus about stratification


What did Davis and Moore suggest?

Stratification (and social inequality) is necessary and functional


What did Merton add?

The idea of strain


What is a positive evaluation of Functionalism?

In general there is agreement - people do accept the may given to certain jobs and aspire to them
It is useful to explain anomie
Educational opportunities = social mobility


What did Durkheim think of inherited wealth (Functionalism)?

Inherited wealth was unfair and should be abolished


What is a negative evaluation of Functionalism?

Some essential obs are poorly paid (eg nurses) and there is outrage against 'fat cat' salaries
Social closure and private schools - Functionalists ignore power differences
Merton - some aspects of society are dysfunctional (internal critique)
Davis and Moore ignore the damaging effects of stratification
Overly deterministic


What did Tumin say about university?

It is used by wealthier groups to maintain power


What did Saunders suggest? (New Right)

Capitalism and stratification leads to innovation and higher living standards; education represents equal opportunities; the poor see poverty as a 'choice'


What did Murray suggest? (New Right)

Underclass are the 'new rabble', with distinct cultural values such as welfare dependency and crime; top salaries are justified and deserves; class has declined in importance due to higher equality


What is a positive evaluation of the New Right?

NR views are useful to consider progress made in equality


What is a negative evaluation of the New Right?

Ignores structral barriers created by poverty
Coates and Silburn - found the cycle of deprivation and poverty is cumulative
Marxists - the underclass are NOT a distinctive group, capitalism creates poverty


What did Coates and Silburn find?

The cycle of deprivation - poverty is cumulative


What do Bowles and Gintis find? (Marxism)

Institutions such as educatio work on behalf of the ruling class to create passive conformity


What is a positive evalutation of Marxism?

Braverman - proletarianization (the deskilling of workers)


What is a negative evaluation of Marxism?

It is economically deterministic
Marx did not predict the growth in the middle class
Postmodernism - it is a dated metanarrative


What does Neo-Marxism consider?

The role of culture and ideology (ISA/RSA and hegemony) and the growth of the middle class, adds action theory


What did Harvey find (Neo-Marxism)?

Globalization has allowed the expansion of capitalism


What did Bourdieu suggest?

'Cultural capital' - class boundaries are more than just a relationship to the economy


What did Gramsci say? (Neo-Marxist)

'Hegemony' is how the powerful manipulate institutions


What did Hall find (Neo-Marxism)

The moral panic about black muggers showed the influence of the media


What did Marcuse add (Neo-Marxism)

The idea of advertising creating false needs


How did Althusser explain the lack of a revolution (Neo-Marxism)?

Education reinforces hegemonic identity through the hidden curriculum


What does Zaretsky suggest (Neo-Marxism)?

Family reinforces hegemonic identity


What did Bravermen suggest (Neo-Marxism)?

Proletarianization disempowers workers


What did Guy Standing find?

The 'precariat'


What did Wright find? (neo-Marxism)

There are 4 layers of power - full, partial, minimal, or none
Adds middle class to N-M


Name three Weberian theorists and their view on class

Scott - unified upper class who practice social closure
Rex and Tomlinson - identify an underclass which lacks status and party
Barron and Norris - dual labour market


What are the three aspects of inequality identified by Weber?



What is a positive evaluation of Weberian theory?

It explains the growth in/fragmentation of the middle class
Influenced postmodern ideas about consumption choices
Explains the lack of revolution
Seeing class and status as separate explains social closure
Explains non-class inequality (Gender/age/ethnicity)
Party - considers the importance of social contacts


What is a negative evaluation of Weberian theory?

Marxists see the smaller divisions as unimportant, the main division is between the working and ruling classes, also think status and class correlate so see no need to study them separately
Feminists think it underestimates gender inequality
Postmodernists see it as a 'metanarrative'


What does Lyotard (postmod) say?

All other theories are metanarratives - each individual will have a different experience


What does Modood say (postmod)?

Hybrid identities are based on negotiation, not just class


What does Hall suggest (postmod)?

Class is no longer a 'master identity'


What is a positive evaluation of Postmodernism?

Savage - showed most people do not identify with a class


What is a negative evaluation of Postmodernism

Savage said class is now MORE important
Overestimates freedom to choose - ignoring the structural constraints
Research is not a 'pointless metanarrative', policy changes can improve lives