Flashcards in Subcultural Theory (Explaining C/D) Deck (28):
What is the basis of subcultural theory?
Merton's idea that deviance is a collective, not individual, response to strain - added interpretivist ideas
What do subcultures provide?
Distinct norms and values and an alternate opportunity structure
What is Cohen's subcultural theory?
Develops Merton's view: delinquency is a collective response. Subcultures are REACTIVE, developing due to strain (crimes with no gain prove this).
What does Cohen say causes subcultures?
The strain of the lower working class causes status frustration, espeically due to low educational achievement. Subcultures are formed allowing an alternative opportunity structure
What is an evaluation of Cohen's theory?
Box - the working class do not invert norms and values of middle class - they never actually share them.
Accepts OCS, ignores mc and uc crime
What is Cloward and Ohlin's subcultural theory?
They identify illegitimate opportunity structures, focuses on young working class males. Strain causes pressure to deviate.
Identifies three subculture types - criminal, conflict, retratist
What is Cloward and Ohlin's three subculture types?
What are evaluations of Cloward and Ohlin's subc theory?
Assumes everyone starts with shared values and goals (Taylor, Walton and Young dispute this)
Ignores women and mc/uc crime
There is overlap between the three types of subculture
What is Miller's independent subcultural theory?
A distinct w/c subculture exists, with different norms and values. Deviance is not due to strain but due to different culture (6 focal concerns)
What are Miller's 6 Focal Concerns
What did Miller say causes delinquency?
Young males acting out their 6 focal concerns
What is an evaluation of Miller?
He does not explain the origins of focal concerns or values, ignores women's, mc/uc crime
Marxists are critical - RSA
What was Matza's theory (CRITIQUES SUBCULTURAL)?
Delinquency is caused by drift - deviants are not committed to crime (they are transient law breakers)
We all share subterranean (deviant) values
People who commit crime are the same as everyone else, showing remorse and outrage at the crimes committed by others
What does Matza say are used to justify crimes?
Techniques of neutralisation to explain or excuse their deviance
What is an evaluation of Matza's theory
Box - remorse may not be sincere, instead techniques of neutralisation are used only to avoid punishment
What did the UK Home Office find?
Up to 6% of 10-19yr olds are in a gang
What did the Met Police say in 2007
There were 171 gangs in London, showing the variation by locality
What is a problem with OCS and subculture?
It does not record if crime is gang related (Home Office does not have an agreed universal definition of a gang)
Gang crime is underreported
What did Marshall find?
3 types of deviant subculture: peer groups, gangs, organised criminal groups
What did Why Kids Kill find?
Deprivation and boredom, along with fear of violence, lead to joining a gang
What did the Joseph Rowntree Foundation find?
'Territoriality', gang life provided the positives of identity and solidarity, but increased risk of victimisation
Most gang members were boys from deprived areas ages 13 to 17
What did Harding (2014) find?
'Brand' (street capital) has to be actively worked at; eg through crime and violence.
Poverty and deprivation leads to gangs
Girls have power too using 'people skills' etc
What did the Social Justice Think Tank 2014 find?
Females in gangs lead 'desperate lives' due to rape etc, their education suffers
What did Korem (1994) find?
More middle class males are joining gangs due to family problems not deprivation
What are the two Marxist subcultural approaches?
Phil Cohen - skinheads and symbolic resistance
Hebdige - punks and incorporation
What was Phil Cohen (Marxist)'s study?
Studied 1970s skinheads, finding their style was a symbolic reaction to the decline of working class communities
What was Hebdige (Marxist)'s study?
Punks in late 1970s - puks set out to deliberately shock the establishment and society to symbolically resist the dominant cultural values of UK society at the time. However punks and other youth subcultures are short lived due to incorporation: capitalism quickly commercialises aspects of youth cultural style, stripping them of their ideological symbolism