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Flashcards in Delaney - Science December 5 Deck (22):
1

What is Copernicus's Strength of Model?

Although this model included epicycles to explain predictions for planet positions, the model did not rely on epicycles to explain why planets seem to backtrack at times. Explained that planets seem to backtrack because Earth was also revolving. Earth wasn't the center.

2

What is Copernicus's Weakness of Model?

Model still argued that planets revolved in a perfectly circular path. Also included epicycles.

3

What is Galileo's Model?

In 1610, Galileo used a telescope to observe that moons orbited Jupiter. He realized that if all objects orbited the Earth, then this couldn't be true. But he believed in what he observed. This observation was part of the evidence that helped him decide to support Copernicus' sun-centered model of the solar system.

4

What was Johannes Kepler's breakthrough?

In 1609, he argued that planets moved in an elliptical (oval-shaped) orbit, not a circular one. This allowed scientists to better predict planet positions.

5

What was Issac Newton's breakthrough?

In 1684, he combined the ideas of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler, and explained that a forced called gravity caused planets to move in an elliptical orbit around the sun.

6

What is Aristotle's Strength of Model?

Able to explain why the sun and planets seem to move across the sky.

7

What is Aristotle's Weakness of Model?

Not able to explain why the planets seem to backtrack at times.

8

What is Ptolemy's Strength of Model?

Able to explain why the sun and planets seem to move across the sky AND his idea of epicycles explained why the planets seem to backtrack at times.

9

What is Ptolemy's Weakness of Model?

Very complicated; goes against the notion that simple is usually accurate.

10

Ptolemy's epicycles showed what?

That planets orbited in small circles as they revolved around the Earth.

11

What scientist's model included epicycles to explain predictions for planet positions, the model did not rely on epicycles to explain why planets seem to backtrack at times (strength of his model)?

Copernicus

12

What scientist's model explained that planets seem to backtrack because Earth was also revolving (strength of his model)?

Copernicus

13

What scientist's model recognized that Earth was not the center (strength of his model)?

Copernicus

14

What scientist's model still argued that planets revolved in perfectly circular paths and also included epicycles (weakness of his model)?

Copernicus

15

In what year did Galileo use a telescope to observe that moons orbited Jupiter?

1610

16

In what year did Kepler argue that planets moved in an elliptical orbit?

1609

17

In what year did Newton combine ideas of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler to explain the force called gravity that caused planets to move in an elliptical orbit around the sun?

1684

18

What scientist's model is able to explain why the sun and planets seem to move across the sky (strength of his model)?

Aristotle

19

What scientist's model is not able to explain why the planets seem to backtrack at times (weakness of his model)?

Aristotle

20

What scientist's model is able to explain why the sun and planets seem to move across the sky AND his idea of epicycles explained why the planets seem to backtrack at times (strength of his model)?

Ptolemy

21

What scientist's model is very complicated; goes against the notion that simple is usually accurate (weakness of his model)?

Ptolemy

22

Planets orbiting in small circles as they revolved around the Earth are called

Epicycles