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Flashcards in Demography Deck (13)
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education of women is the main reason for the long term fall in birth and fertility rates. People now delay child bearing and it has changed mind sets of women, no longer have to be housewives.


Harper- imr

A fall in IMR leads to a fall in the birth rate , if infant die parents have more children to replace them, if they survive no erred for more children.
IMR falls : - better health care - nutrition etc.


Other reasons for the decline in birth rate

1. Children are now an economic liability- they can no loner work due to laws and changing norms - children can expect money and things from their parents.
2. Families are more child centred now


Effects of a declining birth rate

1. smaller families means women are more free to go to work.
2. dependency ratio - size of working to those not working. less children smaller decency ratio but when they get older there will be less people to help those dependent.
3. ageing population.



1. improved nutrition- McKeown
2. Medical improvements
3. Smoking and diet- Harper- no smoking is reason for this decline
4. stronger local and central gov means they make more safety laws
5. Life expectancy has grown.


Effects of an ageing population

1.Public services- older people use it more
2.One person households- 1/8 of all households are pensioners.
3.dependency ratio - live longer greater dependency ratio.


Phillipson - agesim

old are no longer any user to capitalism as they are no longer productive, so the state. no longer supports them and this role then falls to the family.



in post modern society what we consume not produce defines us, age is no longer a factor it is what we choose in our lifestyle.


Impact of migration

1.population size- high net migration, and immigrant have. ore children.
2. lower age so bring down average age, also as have more children average age decreases
3. dependency ratio has decreased as they are of working age, but they have her fertility so it increases


Cohen- three types of migrants

1. citizens- full citizen rights eg voting
2. denizens- privileged foreign nationals welcomed by the state- billionaires
3. Helots- states use them as disposable units of labour power, poorly paid and most exploited.


Ehrenreich and Hochschild- explain why some migration has grown, they do jobs such as care, domestic and sex work.

1. Expansion of service occupations in western countries has led to an increasing demand for female labour.
2. western women have joined the labour force and are less willing or able to perform domestic labour.
3. western men remain unwilling to perform domestic labour
4. failure of the state to provide adequate childcare.


Eade - hybrid identity

second generation Bangladeshi muslims first saw them selves as muslims and then bangledishi, hybrid identities lead to others challenging them or accuse them of not fitting in.


politicisation of migration

Assimilation- first policy we tried to force them to learn English and join our cultures.
Multiculturalism- accept other cultures but is limited.