Flashcards in Depression Deck (14):
Describe appearance and behaviour of someone with depression.
decreased eye contact
furrowed brow, decreased facial expression
rapport difficult to establish
Describe the speech of someone with depression.
decreased rate of speech
lowered in pitch, decreased volume
increased speech latencies (longer time between end of question and them responding)
Describe the mood and affect of someone with depression.
decreased range of mood
'flat', 'empty', 'black'
low, miserable, unhappy
Describe the thought of someone with depression.
flow - slow and pondering
form - typically normal
content - pessimism, low self esteem, negative, self accusatory, failure, guilt
delusions of guilt, poverty, nihilism, hypochondriasis
Describe the perception of someone with depression.
hallucinations - almost always auditory
negative, depressive themes
usually second person and derogatory e.g. you're a bad person and you deserve to die
Describe the cognition of someone with depression.
slow with complaints of poor memory - usually due to inattention
deficits in planning, working memory and attention
Describe the insight of someone with depression.
typically preserved - usually aware of symptoms and that theres something wrong
attribution - can be affected (symptoms blamed on sins, physical illness, personal failings, weakness)
What are the diagnostic criteria for depression?
more than 2 weeks
clearly abnormal for the person
interferes significantly with normal function
core symptoms and additional features for mild, moderate, severe
How many symptoms for mild depression?
plus at least 1 additional feature
How many symptoms for moderate depression?
2 or 3 core features
plus at least 3 additional features
How many symptoms for severe depression?
3/3 core features
plus 5 additional symptoms
What are the 3 core features of depression?
low mood (abnormal for patient, affects life significantly)
loss of interest or pleasure in things they normally enjoy
decreased energy levels
What are the additional features of depression?
- loss of confidence
- unreasonable feelings of guilt or self reproach
- suicidal thoughts or behaviour
- decreased concentration
- agitation or retardation
- sleep disturbance
- appetite change