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Flashcards in Depression - Explanation Deck (43)
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1

Which key approach is used in the explanation for depression?

The cognitive approach.

2

What are cognitive psychologists concerned with in terms of explaining depression?

They are concerned with how irrational thinking can lead to depression.

3

What are the explanations used to explain depression?

- Beck's negative triad,
- Ellis' ABC model.

4

Who's explanation was developed in line with the cognitive approach in the 1960's?

Both Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis.

5

What are the key assumptions of the explanation?

Individuals who suffer from the mental disorders have distorted and irrational thinking which causes maladaptive behaviour.
It is the way you think about the problem rather than the problem itself which causes the mental health disorder.

6

What did Beck suggest about the explanation for depression?

Beck suggested that there is a cognitive explanation as to why some people are more vulnerable to depression than others.

7

Beck suggested three parts to cognitive vulnerability, what were these?

- Negative self-schemas,
- Cognitive biases,
- Negative triad.

8

What is a self-schema?

A package of ideas that we have about ourselves.

9

What type of self-schemas do depressed people have?

Depressed people have developed negative self-schemas and therefore interpret all the information about themselves in a negative way.

10

What was the aim of Weissman and Beck (1978)?

To investigate the thought of depressed people to establish if they make use of negative schemas.

11

We use schemas to interpret the world, why is this a problem for depressed people?

Depressed people have negative self-schemas and therefore interpret all information about themselves in a negative way.

12

Explain what Beck meant by faulty information processing?

Depressed people tend to attend to the negative aspects of a situation and ignore the positives, they also tend to blow small problems way out of proportion and think in 'black and white' terms.

13

What are the components of the negative triad?

- Negative view of the world,
- Negative view of the future,
- Negative view of the self.

14

What is a negative view of the world?

It is a hostile place.

15

What is a negative view of the future?

Problems will not disappear, there will always be emotional pain.

16

What is a negative view of the self?

I am incompetent and undeserving, (self hate).

17

Beck believed that those who are depressed had fundamental errors in their logic, they mispercieve reality due to their cognitive biases. What are these cognitive biases?

1) Over-generalisation,
2) Personalisation,
3) Selective abstraction,
4) Magnification,
5) Minimisation.

18

Jack is depressed, it is on the run up to exams that he begins feeling worse and worse as time goes on.
Using Beck's Negative Triad, explain why Jack is finding it difficult to cope.

- He feels bad due to exams starting and him not being ready (self).
- Worried about the future exams (future).
- Exams are rubbish and pointless (world).
- They all combine and Jack feels worse and worse.

19

What did Ellis believe about depression?

Ellis believed depressives mistakenly blame external events for their unhappiness. He strongly believed that irrational thinking causes depression.

20

What did Ellis believe about depression?

Ellis believed depressives mistakenly blame external events for their unhappiness. He strongly believed that irrational thinking causes depression.

21

What is the major premise of Ellis' explanation?

The human goal is to achieve happiness, blocks will occur to this goal and the reactions to these blocks are either rational or irrational. Irrational responses lead to depression.

22

Ellis believed that which type of reactions lead to depression?

Irrational.

23

What is the A in Ellis' ABC model?

Activating event.

24

What is the B in Ellis' ABC model?

Belief.

25

What is the C in Ellis' ABC model?

Consequences.

26

Beck said depression leads to negative thoughts about what three things?

The self,
The future,
The world.

27

Depressive people undoubtedly have negative thoughts, however, do the negative thoughts help cause depression, or do they merely occur as a result of depression, are they a cause or effect?

They are unobservable and unmeasurable therefore they cannot be told.

28

How did Ellis describe irrational thoughts?

Not as illogical or unrealistic thoughts, but as any thoughts that interfere with us being happy and pain free.

29

Which model explains how irrational thoughts affect our behaviour and emotional state?

Ellis' ABC model.

30

Give an example of the ABC model for a rational thinking person when faced with a traffic jam:

A = Stuck in traffic.
B = There is probably a crash or danger ahead.
C = I will wait until it is safe for me to pass.