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Flashcards in OCD - Explanation Deck (62)
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1

From which key approach is the explanation to psychology drawn?

The biological approach.

2

What are the two forms of Biological explanations that can be used to explain the OCD behaviours?

- Genetic explanations,
- Neural explanations.

3

What are neural explanations?

The genes associated with OCD are likely to affect the levels of key neurotransmitters as well as structures of the brain, these are neural explanations.

4

Lewis (1936) observed that of his OCD patients, ____% had parents with OCD and ____% had siblings with OCD.

37% and 21%:
Lewis (1936) observed that of his OCD patients, 37% had parents with OCD and 21% had siblings with OCD.

5

Which model can explain how certain genes leave some people more likely to suffer a mental disorder?

The diathesis-stress model.

6

What are candidate genes?

Researchers have identified genes, which create a genetic vulnerability for OCD, these are called candidate genes.

7

What are the three parts of the genetic approach?

- Candidate genes,
- OCD is polygenic,
- Different types of OCD.

8

T / F:
Lewis (1936) found that of his OCD patients, 37% had parents with OCD, this means that there is a gene which makes you have OCD.

False - What is probably being passed down through generations is a genetic vulnerability as the number is not 100%.

9

Candidate genes that have been identified by researchers usually have what type of function in the body?

They are mostly involved in regulating the development of the dopamine or seratonin system. (e.g. the gene 5HT1-D beta which is implicates in the efficiency of transport of seratonin across synapses.)

10

What did Lewis' findings (1936) suggest about the nature of OCD?

His findings suggested OCD runs in families, although what is probably passed down is a genetic vulnerability and OCD is not definite.

11

Researchers have identified candidate genes such as '5HT1-D beta', what is the role of this gene and why may damage to it suggest OCD could develop?

It is implicated in the efficiency of seratonin transport across synapses, seratonin regulates anxiety, mood etc and therefore less efficient transport means more unstable moods and anxiety levels.

12

OCD, like many conditions is polygenic, what does this mean?

This means OCD is caused not by one single gene but several genes are involved.

13

Who found evidence on the polygenic nature of OCD?

Taylor (2013) analysed findings of previous studies and found evidence that up to 230 different genes may be involved in OCD.

14

Dopamine and Serotonin have both been studied in relation to OCD, what do they have in common?

They are both neurotransmitters believed to have a role in regulating mood.

15

What does it mean that OCD is aetiologically heterogeneous?

This means one group of genes may cause OCD in one person but a different group of genes may cause the disorder in someone else.

16

Breakdown the word:
'aetiologically heterogeneous'.

aetiologically = origin (of OCD gene),
heterogeneous = different causes,
Therefore, all together means genes have different causes in each person in relation to OCD.

17

Due to the polygenic nature of OCD, one group of genes can cause OCD is one person but a different group of genes may cause the disorder in someone else. What is the name for this?

'aetiologically heterogeneous'.

18

Describe the findings of Taylor (2013):

Taylor analysed findings of previous studies and found evidence that up to 230 different genes may be involved in OCD.

19

What are the two main neural explanations?

The role of seratonin,
Decision-making systems.

20

What evidence is there for the genetic basis of OCD?

OCD tends to run in families, suggesting there is a genetic influence. Research support for this has come from twin studies and family studies.

21

T / F:
OCD has a 100% concordance rate in MZ twins.

False - we NEVER find a 100% concordance rate.

22

What do biopsychologists say about the relationship between concordance rates and inheritance of a trait?

They say that the higher the concordance rates between two people, the more likely it is the trait was inherited.

23

In twin and family studies we never see 100% concordance, what is meant by concordance?

The "similarity" between data sets, expressed as a percentage.

24

If a trait has a biological (genetic) basis, then would we expect MZ twins or DZ twins to have higher concordance rates and why?

we would expect MZ twins to have higher concordance rats than DZ twins as MZ are genetically identical.

25

Research has found that OCD tends to run in families, what type of studies would support this finding?

Twin and family concordance studies.

26

Explain gene-mapping studies (in relation to OCD sufferers):

They compare the genetic material from OCD sufferers with non-sufferers.

27

Research has shown what about the heritability of different types of OCD?

Different types of OCD have different heritability co-efficients.

28

The neural explanation is based around neurotransmitters, what are they?

They are chemical messengers.

29

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter linked to OCD, what is its simple function?

It sends mood relevant information.

30

What can be said about the levels of seratonin in those with OCD (and depression)?

They are extremely low.