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Flashcards in Phobias - Treatment Deck (37)
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1

Treatments are based upon explanations, what is the explanation used for the behavioural treatment?

The two-process model.

2

What are the two behavioural methods for treating phobias?

- Systematic desensitisation,
- Flooding.

3

Systematic desensitisation used which behaviourist principle to reduce phobic anxiety?

Classical conditioning.

4

Which treatment is designed to gradually reduce phobic anxiety?

Systematic desensitisation.

5

What are the three processes involved in systematic desensitisation?

1. The anxiety hierarchy,
2. Relaxation,
3. Exposure.

6

What is reciprocal inhibition?

Learning to be afraid and relaxed at the same time, so one emotion prevents the other. (relaxation blocks anxiety).

7

What is it called when relaxation prevents the emotion of anxiety.

Reciprocol inhibition.

8

Which process requires reciprocal inhibition?

Systematic desensitisation.

9

For someone who had arachnophobia, what might they identify as low and high on their anxiety heirarchy?

Low = seeing a picture of a small spider.
High = Holding a tarantula.

10

Which process requires the process of counter-conditioning?

The sufferer learning to relax in the presence of the phobic stimulus.

11

Who puts together the anxiety heirarchy?

The patient and the therapist work on it together.

12

What is the anxiety hierarchy?

It is a list of situations related to the phobic stimulus that provokes anxiety arranged in order from least to most frightening.

13

What part of treatment has been likened to a 'ladder of fear'?

The anxiety hierarchy used in systematic desensitisation.

14

What is the relaxation part of systematic desensitisation?

The therapist teaches the patient how to relax deeply, using a number of techniques such as breathing exercises and mental imagery techniques. Alternatively they can use techniques such as drugs like Valium.

15

What drugs can be used to cause relaxation is systematic desensitisation?

Drugs such as Valium.

16

What techniques can be used to achieve relaxation during systematic desensitisation?

- Breathing exercises,
- Mental imagery techniques,
- Drugs such as Valium.

17

What are mental imagery techniques?

The patient learning to imagine themselves in relaxing situations or learning meditation.

18

What is the exposure part of systematic desensitisation?

The patient is finally exposed to the phobic stimulus wile in a relaxed state, starting at the bottom of the hierarchy and then moving up the 'ladder'.

19

When is systematic desensitisation complete?

When the patient can stay relaxed in situations high up on the anxiety hierarchy.

20

How does flooding work?

Exposing the phobic patients to their stimulus but without a gradual build-up, (no hierarchy).

21

Which type of treatment involves immediate exposure to a very frightening situation?

Flooding.

22

How would someone with arachnophobia receive treatment through flooding?

Having a large spider (such as a tarantula) crawl over them for a prolonged period of time.

23

What is the fastest type of treatment for phobias?

Flooding - some patients only require 1 or 2 sessions, which last normally 2 or 3 hours.

24

How would a severe phobia of cats be treated?

Through either systematic desensitisation or flooding.

25

What is the difference between systematic desensitisation and flooding?

Flooding doesn't involve a gradual build up of anxiety whilst systematic desensitisation does (the anxiety hierarchy).

26

How does flooding work?

Without the option to avoid the phobia, the patient quickly learns that the stimulus is harmless (this is extinction).

27

What is extinction?

When the phobic response is stopped because without the option of avoidance behaviour, they quickly learn the stimulus is harmless.

28

Is flooding an ethical treatment?

No, it is very unpleasant for the sufferer, therefore, it is vital for informed consent.

29

Explain the process of flooding using classical conditioning?

A learned response is extinguished when the conditioned stimulus is encountered without the unconditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus no longer produces the conditioned response (fear).

30

AO3 - Effectivity.

Research has shown that systematic desensitisation is effective in treatment, Gilroy (2003) followed up 42 patients who were treated for arachnophobia through SD, a control group was treated by relaxation without exposure. Treatment with SD was helpful and the effects were long-lasting.