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Flashcards in Depression & Suicide Deck (17)
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1
Q

sub threshold depressive symptoms

A

at least one key symptom but with insufficient other symptoms and/or function impairment to meet the criteria

2
Q

Dysthymia

A

symptoms that are subthreshold for depression but lasts at least
2 years.

3
Q

what’s another name for Bipolar disorder

A

manic-depressive illness

characterised by severe highs (mania) and severe lows (depression)

4
Q

key symptoms of depression

A
  • persistent sadness or low mood and/or marked loss of interests or pleasure

AT LEAST ONE OF THESE SYMTPMS, MOST DAYS, MOST OF THE TIME, FOR AT LEAST TWO WEEKS

5
Q

When talking about the key symptoms of depression you must always ask about associated symptoms

A
disturbed sleep 
decreased/increased appetite 
fatigue/loss of energy 
poor concentration 
indecision 

ask about family history as well

6
Q

ANHEDONIA

A

Loss of interest or
pleasure in hobbies
and activities that
were once enjoyed

7
Q

cognitive symptoms

A

– Lowered self-esteem and self-confidence
– Feelings of guilt and worthlessness
– Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness
– Pessimistic and recurrently negative thoughts about oneself, world, and future
 ‘negative cognitive triad’
• Poor concentration and reduced attention, difficulty making decisions
• Mental slowing or rumination
• Suicidal ideation may be present

8
Q

negative cognitive triad

A
  • negative views about oneself
  • negative views about the future
  • negative views about the world
9
Q

biological symptoms

A
  • Lowered appetite, weight loss, sometimes weight gain
  • Insomnia, early-morning awakening, feeling worse in the morning
  • Low energy, fatigue
  • Loss of libido
  • Social withdrawal
10
Q

what are the combining factors that cause depression

A
  • genetic and family factors
  • early life experiences
  • stressful life events
  • social support
  • gender
11
Q

examples of early life experiences

A
  • Poor parent-child relationship,
  • marital discord and divorce,
  • neglect,
  • physical and sexual abuse
12
Q

stressful life events

A
  • failure at work, at school, loss of a job
  • marital separation
  • rejection by a loved one
  • death of a child
  • illness of a family member
  • physical illness
13
Q

why are women more likely to be depressed

A
  • women may express and report symptoms more than men
  • hormones
  • early life stress, sexual abuse
  • additonal home stresses of single parenthood and caring for children and ageing parents etc.
14
Q

what drugs can cause depression

A

hypertensives, corticostreoids, and chemotherapy agents

15
Q

Depression and chronic illness:

how they can be linked

A
  • adapting unhealthy behaviours (smoking, drinking and bad diet etc.)
  • Not adhering to medical regimens
  • Direct effects on physiological mechanisms
16
Q

treatment options

A
• Pharmacological treatments
• Psychological treatments
- physical activity 
- electroconvulsive treatment 
- CBT
17
Q

CBT

A
  • Short-term psychological treatment
  • emphasis on the role of thinking in how we feel and what we do
  • identify the challenges and unhealthy modes of thinking that cause depressed feelings