Depressive Disorder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Depressive Disorder Deck (53):
1

On average, __% of people with mental conditions also have a medical condition.

68%

2

On average, __% of people with medical conditions also have a mental condition.

29%

3

A pervasive, sustained feeling tone that is largely an internal experience and influences one's behavior and perception is referred to as a(n) (mood/affect).

Mood

A mood is akin to an area's "climate". It is unseen and affects the area's external changes.

4

The external expression of a sustained feeling tone that may be observed is referred to as a(n) (mood/affect).

Affect

An affect is comparable to an area's weather. Weather is largely affected by a region's climate. An affect is what one's mood brings about. It is observable by those around the patient experiencing a bad mood.

5

Nearly all depressed patients have considerable _____________.

Anxiety

6

On average, depression encompasses ___% of total DALYs caused by disease.

4.3

7

________________ has the highest lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder.

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

8

The typical onset for MDD is between __-__ years of age.

20-40

9

The rate of concordance among monozygotic twins experiencing MDD is __-__%.

40-50%

10

The rate of concordance among dizygotic twins experiencing MDD is __-__%.

10-25%

11

What are some of the common risk factors for depression?

  • Family history
  • Stressful life events
  • History of anxiety
  • Postpartum period
  • Female gender
  • Older age
  • Lack of social support
  • Single
  • Divorced/Widowed
  • Substance abuse
  • Chronic pain
  • Medical comorbidities

12

The medical condition with the highest incidence of depression as a comorbidity is ____________.

Stroke

13

What are some of the common risk factors for completed suicide?

  • Male gender
  • Over age 45
  • Caucasian
  • Divorced/widowed/separated
  • Substance use disorders
  • Previous suicide attempts
  • Chronic pain
  • Medical illness
  • Psychotic symptoms
  • Unemployed

14

Often times, _______________________ serves as the highest risk factor of depression.

Losing a parent as a child

15

The prefrontal cortex is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).

Goal directed behavior

16

The amydala is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).

Emotional stimuli

17

The anterior cingulate cortex is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).

Attention and emotional arousal

18

The hippocampus is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).

Emotional learning

19

Increased cortisol results in feedback inhibition of the _____________ and _____________.

Anterior pituitary and hypothalamus

20

Increased cortisol levels cause a shrunken ______________.

Hippocampus

21

Genetic mutations in what three proteins result in increased risk of depression?

  • 5HTT (Serotonin transporter) - Serotonin transport
  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - Protects cells from apoptosis in nervous tissue
  • Tryptophan hydroxylase - Serotonin production

22

The (psychodynamic/cognitive/behavioral) theory of depression is marked by depressogenic schemata with cognitive distortions accompanied by a negative view of one's self, the world, and the future.

Cognitive

23

The (psychodynamic/cognitive/behavioral) theory of depression is marked by learned helplessness.

Behavioral

24

A depressive disorder present for two years or longer is referred to as _________________.

Dysthymia

25

What are the two essential symptoms important in the diagnosis of depression?

  • Mood changes (may present as irritability)
  • Anhedonism

26

_____________ is the condition in which a patient no longer enjoys things they once did.

Anhedonism

27

What useful mnemonic exists for the diagnosis of depression?

SIG E CAPS

  • S: Sleep (changes in)
  • I: Interest (loss of)
  • G Guilt (helplessness)
  • E: Energy (lack of)
  • C: Concentration
  • A: Appetite
  • P: Psychomotor (slowing or agitation)
  • S: Suicidal ideation

28

A depressed patient's speech displays (increased/decreased) rate and volume.

Decreased

29

Approximately __% of depressed patients deny any depressive changes to their mood.

50%

30

The intensely painful state in response to the loss of a loved one is the normal process of _________________.

Grief and bereavement

31

The typical onset of postpartum depression is __-__ months.

3-6 months

32

Postpartum depression typically lasts _______________.

Months to years

33

(T/F) Anhedonia does not accompany postpartum depression.

False. Anhedonia is often observed in post partum depression.

34

Patients suffering from postpartum depression (often/rarely) entertain thoughts of harming the newborn child.

Often

35

(T/F) Pancreatic carcinomas and vitamin B12 deficiency are both associated with an increased risk of depression.

True.

36

What types of medications or drugs may cause depression?

  • Antihypertensives
  • Interferon
  • Opioids
  • Steroids
  • CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, clonidine)

37

(T/F) Late onset of depression is less suggestive of a medical cause.

False. Late onset of depression is more suggestive of a medical cause.

38

If a transmitter depolarizes the postsynaptic neuron, it is said to be (excitatory/inhibitory).

Excitatory

39

If a transmitter hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic neuron, it is said to be (excitatory/inhibitory).

Inhibitory

40

Whether a transmitter is excitatory or inhibitory is dependent upon its ____________.

Receptor

41

All serotonin pathways in the CNS originate in the ____________.

Raphe nuclei

42

All noradrenaline pathways in the CNS originate in the ____________.

Locus ceruleus

43

All dopamine pathways in the CNS originate in the ____________.

Substantia nigra

44

(Norepinephrine/Dopamine/Serotonin) is important for energy and interest.

Norepinephrine

45

(Norepinephrine/Dopamine/Serotonin) is important for impulse.

Serotonin

46

(Norepinephrine/Dopamine/Serotonin) is important for drive.

Dopamine

47

A lack of _____________ has been associated with violent suicides.

Serotonin

48

What is the sub-type of depressive disorder with delusions & hallucinations (may be mood congruent or NOT)?

 

Depression with psychotic features

49

What is the sub-type of depression with mutism, immobility, or motor overactivity, posturing, or echolalia?

 

Depression with catatonia

50

What is the sub-type of depressive disorder with increased appetite, increased sleep, or heaviness in arms or legs?

Depression with Atypical features

  • May be a sign of bipolar disorder

51

What is the sub-type of depressive disorder that is worse in the morning, or associated with waking up early, loss of pleasure or reactivity?

Depression with Melancholic features (Classic description of depression)

52

What is the sub-type of depressive disorder that onsets during pregnancy or in the 4 weeks following delivery?

Depression with Peripartum Onset

53

What is the sub-type of depressive disorder that has a regular temporal relationship between onset and particular time of the year?

 

Depresssion with Seasonal Pattern (not necessarily winter)