On average, __% of people with mental conditions also have a medical condition.
On average, __% of people with medical conditions also have a mental condition.
A pervasive, sustained feeling tone that is largely an internal experience and influences one's behavior and perception is referred to as a(n) (mood/affect).
A mood is akin to an area's "climate". It is unseen and affects the area's external changes.
The external expression of a sustained feeling tone that may be observed is referred to as a(n) (mood/affect).
An affect is comparable to an area's weather. Weather is largely affected by a region's climate. An affect is what one's mood brings about. It is observable by those around the patient experiencing a bad mood.
Nearly all depressed patients have considerable _____________.
On average, depression encompasses ___% of total DALYs caused by disease.
________________ has the highest lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
The typical onset for MDD is between __-__ years of age.
The rate of concordance among monozygotic twins experiencing MDD is __-__%.
The rate of concordance among dizygotic twins experiencing MDD is __-__%.
What are some of the common risk factors for depression?
- Family history
- Stressful life events
- History of anxiety
- Postpartum period
- Female gender
- Older age
- Lack of social support
- Substance abuse
- Chronic pain
- Medical comorbidities
The medical condition with the highest incidence of depression as a comorbidity is ____________.
What are some of the common risk factors for completed suicide?
- Male gender
- Over age 45
- Substance use disorders
- Previous suicide attempts
- Chronic pain
- Medical illness
- Psychotic symptoms
Often times, _______________________ serves as the highest risk factor of depression.
Losing a parent as a child
The prefrontal cortex is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).
Goal directed behavior
The amydala is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).
The anterior cingulate cortex is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).
Attention and emotional arousal
The hippocampus is associated with (goal directed behavior/attention and emotional arousal/emotional learning/emotional stimuli).
Increased cortisol results in feedback inhibition of the _____________ and _____________.
Anterior pituitary and hypothalamus
Increased cortisol levels cause a shrunken ______________.
Genetic mutations in what three proteins result in increased risk of depression?
5HTT (Serotonin transporter) - Serotonin transport
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - Protects cells from apoptosis in nervous tissue
Tryptophan hydroxylase - Serotonin production
The (psychodynamic/cognitive/behavioral) theory of depression is marked by depressogenic schemata with cognitive distortions accompanied by a negative view of one's self, the world, and the future.
The (psychodynamic/cognitive/behavioral) theory of depression is marked by learned helplessness.
A depressive disorder present for two years or longer is referred to as _________________.
What are the two essential symptoms important in the diagnosis of depression?
- Mood changes (may present as irritability)
_____________ is the condition in which a patient no longer enjoys things they once did.
What useful mnemonic exists for the diagnosis of depression?
SIG E CAPS
- S: Sleep (changes in)
- I: Interest (loss of)
- G Guilt (helplessness)
- E: Energy (lack of)
- C: Concentration
- A: Appetite
- P: Psychomotor (slowing or agitation)
- S: Suicidal ideation
A depressed patient's speech displays (increased/decreased) rate and volume.
Approximately __% of depressed patients deny any depressive changes to their mood.
The intensely painful state in response to the loss of a loved one is the normal process of _________________.
Grief and bereavement
The typical onset of postpartum depression is __-__ months.
Postpartum depression typically lasts _______________.
Months to years
(T/F) Anhedonia does not accompany postpartum depression.
False. Anhedonia is often observed in post partum depression.
Patients suffering from postpartum depression (often/rarely) entertain thoughts of harming the newborn child.
(T/F) Pancreatic carcinomas and vitamin B12 deficiency are both associated with an increased risk of depression.
What types of medications or drugs may cause depression?
- CNS depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, clonidine)
(T/F) Late onset of depression is less suggestive of a medical cause.
False. Late onset of depression is more suggestive of a medical cause.
If a transmitter depolarizes the postsynaptic neuron, it is said to be (excitatory/inhibitory).
If a transmitter hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic neuron, it is said to be (excitatory/inhibitory).
Whether a transmitter is excitatory or inhibitory is dependent upon its ____________.
All serotonin pathways in the CNS originate in the ____________.
All noradrenaline pathways in the CNS originate in the ____________.
All dopamine pathways in the CNS originate in the ____________.
(Norepinephrine/Dopamine/Serotonin) is important for energy and interest.
(Norepinephrine/Dopamine/Serotonin) is important for impulse.
(Norepinephrine/Dopamine/Serotonin) is important for drive.
A lack of _____________ has been associated with violent suicides.
What is the sub-type of depressive disorder with delusions & hallucinations (may be mood congruent or NOT)?
Depression with psychotic features
What is the sub-type of depression with mutism, immobility, or motor overactivity, posturing, or echolalia?
Depression with catatonia
What is the sub-type of depressive disorder with increased appetite, increased sleep, or heaviness in arms or legs?
Depression with Atypical features
- May be a sign of bipolar disorder
What is the sub-type of depressive disorder that is worse in the morning, or associated with waking up early, loss of pleasure or reactivity?
Depression with Melancholic features (Classic description of depression)
What is the sub-type of depressive disorder that onsets during pregnancy or in the 4 weeks following delivery?
Depression with Peripartum Onset
What is the sub-type of depressive disorder that has a regular temporal relationship between onset and particular time of the year?
Depresssion with Seasonal Pattern (not necessarily winter)