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Flashcards in CNS Trauma Deck (14):
1

What type of skull fracture usually occurs when the person is conscious?

Occipital

They fall back

2

What type of skull fracture usually occurs when the person is unconscious?

Frontal

They fall forward

3

What type of skull fractures are common after side impact and occipital trauma?

What is the result?

Skull base

Results:

  • CSF or blook leakage from the nose/ears
  • Hematomas on the face
  • Cranial nerve deficits

4

What is the result of sudden change in momentum of the head?

Concussion

5

What are the symptoms of a concussion and what will accumulate that can histologically identify it?

  • Instantaneous transient neurologic dysfunction
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Loss of reflexes
  • Amnesia of event

Results in full nerologic recovery

Beta-amyloid precursor protein accumulates

6

What is a contusion?

Bruising resulting from transmission of force through other tissues (looks like wedge)
•Vessel injury, tissue damage, edema
Crests of gyri
•Inferior surfaces of frontal lobe, temporal poles
•Anywhere adjacent to fractures (fracture contusion)
 

7

What is a laceration?

Direct tearing of tissues by penetrating objects

8

What is Coup vs. Contrcoup?

Coup lesion - At the site of the trauma, while the head is still

Contrecoup lesion - At the opposite site of the trauma, while the head is in motion

9

What causes Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI)?

  • Angular acceleration
  • Direct impact or contusion not necessary
  • Results in axonal swellings and multifocal petechial hemorrhage and accumulation of Beta-APP

A image thumb
10

What is an epidural hematoma and what is the cause?

  • Hematoma above the dura (looks lens shaped)
  • Middle meningeal arter tear by fracture
  • Clinical presentation several hours after injury (lucid interval)

11

What is a subdural hematoma and what is the cauase?

  • Hematoma beneath the dura (looks crescent shaped)
  • Bridging vein tear by sudden movement of brain
  • Slowly progessive neurologic deterioration

12

What is the zone of injury surrounding an area of complete infarction called?

Penumbra

13

What are the characteristics of penumbra?

  • Partial ischemia and reperfusion
  • Delayed cell death vs. viability with or without altered cellular structure or function
  • Secondary damage due to inflammation
  • Potentially pharmacologically salvageable.

14

What causes subarachnoid hemorrhages?

  • Rupture of a berry (saccular) aneurysm
  • "Worst headache of my life"