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Flashcards in Stroke Deck (22):
1

Stroke is the leading cause of ________________.

Long-term disability

2

85% of strokes are _____________.

Ischemic

3

A transient episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia without acute infarction is known as a(n) ______________________.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

4

During a stroke, 2 million __________ die each minute without blood flow or oxygen.

Neurons

5

During a stroke, 14 million __________ die each minute without blood flow or oxygen.

Synapses

6

What are common risk factors for stroke?

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Hypertension (HTN) 
  • Diabetes (DM) 
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Smoking

7

What is the primary standard of care for a patient undergoing a stroke?

Administration of tPA Stroke care in a specialized stroke unit

8

The three things to avoid when treating a stroke patient are:

  • Avoid treating hypertension.
    • The stroke has caused the body's acute rise in BP.
    • The BP will decrease on its own within a few days.
    • Lowering the BP will damage the penumbra of the stroke patient.
  • Avoid giving glucose.
    • High glucose damages the penumbra and worsens the outcome
    • Only give glucose if the patient is severely hypoglycemic (<50 mg/dL)
  • Avoid causing aspiration pneumonia.
    • Weak oropharyngeal muscles are common in stroke patients.
    • Do elevate the head of the patient's bed to 30°, keep medications NPO (not by mouth), and rotate patient for emesis (vomiting)

9

When material from the heart travels distally to form a clot in the neck or cranium, it is referred to as a(n) _________________.

Cardio embolism

10

An occlusion or embolism of a large vein or artery in the head or neck is referred to as __________________.

Large vessel disease

11

An occlusion of a smaller vein or artery in the head or neck, particularly the perforating arteries of the cerebrum, is referred to as ________________.

Small vessel disease

12

Some of the leading causes for cardio embolism are:

  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Atrial myxoma (tumor of the cardiac muscle)
  • Endocarditis
  • Valvular calcification

13

When diagnosing a stroke, what tests should be performed concerning brain tissue?

  • CT 
  • MRI

14

When diagnosing a stroke, what tests should be performed concerning the blood?

  • Hypercoaguability panel
  • Platelet function assay (PFA)

15

When diagnosing a stroke, what tests should be performed concerning the cerebrospinal fluid?

Lumbar puncture (LP)

16

No tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) may be given to a patient if ____________ or ____________ is detected on a brain CT.

  • Hemorrhage
  • Subacute ischemia
    • Lesion will appear dark on CT scan if it is subacute, suggesting the condition is more than 3 hours old.

17

If you suspect a patient of having a subarachnoid hemorrhage, but fail to detect it on a CT exam, what subsequent test should you perform?

Lumbar puncture (LP)

18

What is shown on the following CT scan? What would the treatment option be?

Q image thumb

  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Do not administer tPA in this case.

19

What is shown on the following CT scan? What would the treatment option be?

Q image thumb

  • Subacute ischemia. The condition is more than 3 hours old.
  • Do not administer tPA in this case.

20

What is shown on the following CT scan?

Q image thumb

MCA subacute ischemia.

21

What is shown on the following CT scan?

Q image thumb

PCA subacute ischemia.

22

What is shown on the following CT scan?

Q image thumb

ACA subacute ischemia.