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Flashcards in Diencephalon Deck (59):
1

The epithalamus is composed of the _______________ and _________________.

Habenula and pineal gland

2

Afferent signals from the septal nuclei and preoptic areas travel to the _______________ via the ____________ of the thalamus.

Habenular nuclei via the stria medullaris of the thalamus

  • Stimulation of Lateral Habenula = Hopefule treatment for depression that doesn't respond to meds

3

Efferent signals leaving the habenular nuclei travel to the _____________ via the _________________ tract.

Interpeduncular nuclei via the habenulointerpeduncular tract

  • Stimulation of Lateral Habenula = Hopefule treatment for depression that doesn't respond to meds

4

The pineal gland is responsible for secreting ___________ into the blood, regulating sex cycles and helping to control the sleep/wake cycle.

Melatonin

5

When light is detected, the interomediolateral column of the spinal cord switches the pineal gland (on/off).

Off

6

Melatonin is (gonadotropic/antigonadotropic).

Antigonadotropic

7

(Tonic/Phasic) firing of neurons is important for detailed information gathering and focus.

Tonic

8

(Tonic/Phasic) firing of neurons is important for awareness of an event occurring.

Phasic (burst)

9

When observing an image, the (superior colliculus/suprachiasmatic nucleus/lateral geniculate nucleus) receives input from the retina. It is important in circadian rhythm and determining whether or not you can view an image with the amount of light present.

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

10

When observing an image, the (superior colliculus/suprachiasmatic nucleus/lateral geniculate nucleus) is important for spatial orientation of the image.

Superior colliculus

11

When observing an image, the (superior colliculus/suprachiasmatic nucleus/lateral geniculate nucleus) is important for visual discrimination.

Lateral geniculate nucleus

12

(Internal/External) relay nuclei of the thalamus connect sensory sensations from the VPL, VPM, lateral geniculate nuclei, and medial geniculate nuclei to the cerebral cortices.

External. All input is coming from the outside of the body.

  • VPL - Pain and proprioception from body
  • VPM - Pain and proprioception from face
  • LGN - Vision
  • MGN - Hearing

13

(Internal/External) relay nuclei of the thalamus connect motor signals from the VA, VL, and anterior nuclei of the thalamus to the cerebral cortices.

Internal

14

(Relay/Association/Diffuse) nuclei of the thalamus receive input from the cerebral cortices and project back to the association areas of the cerebral cortices where they regulate activity.

Association

15

(Relay/Association/Diffuse) nuclei of the thalamus are nonspecific nuclei that include the intralaminar and midline thalamic nuclei. They project broadly throughout the cerebral cortex.

Diffuse

16

What nuclei make up the relay nuclei of the thalamus?

  • VPL
  • VPM
  • Lateral Geniculate
  • Medial Geniculate 
  • VA 
  • VL
  • Anterior nuclei

17

What nuclei make up the association nuclei of the thalamus?

  • DM = Behavior
  • LD
  • LP
  • Pulvinar

18

What nuclei make up the diffuse nuclei of the thalamus?

  • CM
  • PF (ParaFascularis)
  • Midline
  • Reticular

19

The thalamus receives its blood supply from branches of the _______________ artery.

Posterior cerebral aa.

20

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Dorsomedial thalamic nuclei projection (DM)

  • Association nuclei
  • Input from prefrontal cortex & limbic system
  • Ouput to prefrontal cortex
  • Associated with affect/emotion & foresight (behavior)

21

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Ventroanterior thalamic nuclei projection. (VA)

  • Internal relay nuclei
  • Input from Basal ganglia
  • Output to Motor (4) & Premotor (6)

22

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Ventrolateral thalamic nuclei projection. (VL)

  • Internal relay nuclei
  • Input from Basal ganglia & Cerebellum (dentate nuc.)
  • Output to Motor (4) and Premotor (6)

23

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Ventral Posterolateral thalamic nuclei projection. (VPL)

  • External relay nuclei
  • Input from DC/ML + Spinothalamic
  • Output to Somatosensory Cortex (Body Sensation)

24

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Ventral Posteromedial thalamic nuclei projection. (VPM)

  • External relay nuclei
  • Input from Trigeminothalamic + CTT (taste)
  • Output to Somatosensory Cotex (Face Sensation), Insula (Taste)

25

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Laterodorsal and Lateroposterior thalamic nuclei projection. (LD & LP)

  • Association nuclei

26

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Lateral geniculate nucleus projection.

  • External relay nuclei

27

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Medial geniculate nucleus projection.

  • External relay nuclei

28

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Pulvinar thalamic nuclei projection.

  • Association nuclei

29

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Lateral geniculate nucleus projection.

  • External relay nuclei

30

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Laterodorsal and Lateroposterior thalamic nuclei projection.

  • Association nuclei

31

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Ventral Posterolateral thalamic nuclei projection. (VPL)

  • External relay nuclei
  • Body Sensory

32

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Ventrolateral thalamic nuclei projection. (VL)

  • Internal relay nuclei
  • Input from Basal ganglia
  • Output to Motor (4) and Premotor (6) Broadmann's Area

33

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Ventroanterior thalamic nuclei projection. (VA)

  • Internal relay nuclei
  • Input from Basal ganglia
  • Output to Motor (4) and Premotor (6) Broadmann's Area

34

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Dorsomedial thalamic nuclei projection. (DM)

  • Association nuclei
  • Input from Prefrontal cortex & limbic system
  • Output to prefrontal cortex
  • Associated with affect/emotion & foresight (behavior)

35

Which thalamic nuclei project here?

Q image thumb

Anterior thalamic nuclei projection.

  • Internal relay nuclei
  • Input from Mammillary Bodies (mamillothalamic tract)
  • Output to Cingulate gyrus
  • Limbic system

36

The anterior, dorsomedial, and ventroanterior thalamic nuclei send their projections through the (anterior limb/genu/posterior limb) of the internal capsule.

Anterior limb

37

The ventral posterolateral and ventral posteromedial thalamic nuclei send their projections through the (anterior limb/genu/posterior limb) of the internal capsule.

Posterior limb

38

The ventrolateral thalamic nuclei send their projections through the (anterior limb/genu/posterior limb) of the internal capsule.

Genu

39

A lacunar stroke in the posterior thalamus may result in thalamic syndrome, or unrelenting and burning pain that may be triggered from the smallest touch or emotion. This is thought to be to be caused by the down regulation of thalamic interneurons and absence of the neurotransmitter (acetylcholine/glycine/norepinephrine/GABA/serotonin/dopamine).

GABA

40

(T/F) A lacunar stroke in the posterior thalamus may also result in ipsilateral hemianesthesia or hemiparesis due to the proximity of corticospinal fibers traveling through the internal capsule.

False. While a lacunar stroke in the posterior thalamus may cause hemianesthesia and hemiparesis, it causes these complications on the CONTRALATERAL side, not ipsilateral. The corticospinal fibers decussate at the pyramidal tract, which occurs caudal to the internal capsule.

41

Treatment of thalamic syndrome most often consists of medication given for ______ and ________.

Pain and seizures

42

The ______________ and _____________ nuclei of the thalamus are actually part of the limbic system.

Anterior and dorsomedial

43

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the dorsal column-medial lemniscus and spinothalamic tracts and generates output to the somatosensory cortex.

Ventral posterolateral (VPL)

44

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the trigeminothalamic and central tegmental (taste) tracts and generates output to the somatosensory cortex and insula.

Ventral posteromedial (VPM)

45

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the retina via the optic tract and generates output to the calcarine cortex.

Lateral geniculate (LG)

46

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the inferior colliculus and generates output to the auditory cortex.

Medial geniculate (MG)

47

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the mammillary bodies and generates output to the cingulate gyrus.

Anterior

48

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the basal ganglia and generates output to the motor (Brodmann 4) and premotor (Brodmann 6) cortices.

Ventroanterior (VA)

49

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the basal ganglia and dentate nucleus of the cerebellum and generates output to the motor (Brodmann 4) and premotor (Brodmann 6) cortices.

Ventrolateral (VL)

50

The ______________ nucleus receives input from other thalamic nuclei and the hippocampus and generates output to the parietal cortex and cingulate gyrus. It plays a role in reward associations.

Laterodorsal (LD)

51

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the parietal cortex and generates output to the parietal cortex.

Lateroposterior (LP)

52

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes (TOP) and generates output to the temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes (TOP).

Pulvinar

53

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the reticular formation and basal ganglia and diffusely generates output to the motor (Brodmann 4) and premotor (Brodmann 6) cortices.

Centromedial (CM)

  • Diffuse nuclei

54

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the reticular formation, spinothalamic, and trigeminothalamic tracts and diffusely generates output to the cerebral cortex.

Midline (such as the intrathalamic adhesion)

55

The ______________ nucleus receives input from the thalamus and cortex and generates output to the thalamus.

Reticular

56

(T/F) A patient who has a lesion of the VL thalamic nucleus would have personality problems.

False. A patient with a lesion of the VL thalamic nucleus would most likely experience a movement disorder or some other symptom involving the muscles based upon its projection to the motor cortex.

57

Second order sensory neurons projecting to the VPL thalamic nucleus, followed by projections to the somatosensory cortex is an example of (parallel/serial) processing in the brain.

Serial processing

58

Visual information projecting to the lateral geniculate body at the same time as auditory information being sent to the medial geniculate body is an example of (parallel/serial) processing.

Parallel processing

59

Name the following right thalamic nuclei.

Q image thumb

  • A. Medial geniculate
  • B. Lateral geniculate
  • C. Pulvinar
  • D. Laterodorsal and Lateroposterior
  • E. Ventral posterolateral
  • F. Ventral posteromedial
  • G. Ventrolateral
  • H. Ventroanterior
  • I. Reticular
  • J. Anterior
  • K. Dorsomedial
  • L. Midline
  • M. Intrathalamic adhesion