The percentage of time asleep while in bed is referred to as _______________.
A condition known as ___________ results when either sleep drives are too low or arousal levels are too high.
_________________ is described as a condition in which the patient experiences difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep or non-restorative for at least 3 nights/week for three months. This results in significant distress or impairment in functioning.
What are some of the most common treatments for chronic insomnia?
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I)
- Strengthens sleep drives
- Increases SWS (slow wave sleep)
- Zolpidem (Ambien)
- Strengthens sleep drives
- Increases SWS (slow wave sleep)
Excessive amounts of sleep are referred to as a condition of _______________.
_____________ is described as excessive daytime sleepiness for 3 days/week for three months that also may result in significant distress or impairment in function. It does not occur in relation to other sleep disorders, mental disorders, substance abuse, or general medical conditions.
______________ is a condition in which strong emotions or laughter cause a person to suffer sudden physical collapse though remaining conscious.
Irresistible or unwanted periods of sleep in non-permissive (eating, talking, driving, during sex) or permissive settings that occur daily over a span of 3 days/week for three months are characteristic of ____________. The typical symptoms of this condition are cataplexy, hypocretin deficiency, and multiple sleep onset REM periods during a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT).
The most specific symptom of narcolepsy is(are) (cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency/hallucinations/sleep paralysis).
(Hypnopompic/Hypnagogic) hallucinations are hallucinations seen upon drifting into sleep.
- Hypna-going to sleep
(Hypnopompic/Hypnagogic) hallucinations are hallucinations seen upon waking up from sleep.
__________ is a neurotransmitter that regulates wakefulness and arousal.
Hypocretin (or Orexin)
Narcoleptic sleep attacks typically occur __-__ times per day for a duration of __-__ minutes apiece.
2-6 times/day for a duration of 10-20 minutes
(T/F) Narcolepsy has been linked to an overabundance of hypocretin neurotransmitter.
False. Narcolepsy has been linked to the deficiency of hypocretin.
What are the most common treatments for narcolepsy?
Sodium oxybate (non-stimulant)
_____________ is a nonstimulant used in the treatment of narcolepsy. It serves to increase SWS (slow wave sleep), growth hormone production, and sleep consolidation. It is an agonist of the GABAB receptor.
Sleep apnea accounts for more than __% of patients with EDS (excessive daytime sleepiness).
__________ is the temporary cessation of breathing during sleep, typically caused by closure of the airway.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
What are some of the common treatments for obstructive sleep apnea?
- Continuous positive air pressure (CPAP)
- Weight loss
- Dental appliances
____________________ sleep disorders result in persistent or recurrent patterns of sleep disruption leading to excessive daytime sleepiness or insomnia due to a mismatch between a patient's required sleep-wake schedule and his/her sleep-wake pattern.
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders
What are some of the common types of circadian rhythm sleep disorders?
- Jet lag
- Shift work
- Delayed/advanced sleep phase
__________________ is a condition characterized by the desire to move one's legs or arms due to uncomfortable sensations typically described as creeping, crawling, tingling, burning, or itching. This results in frequent movement of the limbs in order to relieve the uncomfortable sensations.
Restless leg syndrome
What are some of the common causes of restless leg syndrome?
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Folate and iron deficiency
- Reticular formation dysfunction
What are the typical treatments for restless leg syndrome?
- Dopamine agonists
- Iron or folate replacement
Levodopa, pramipexole, and ropinirole are examples of ______________ types of drugs.
Dopamine agonist types
_____________ is a condition marked by frightening dreams that typically involve threats to survival, security, or self-esteem. These dreams usually occur in the latter half of the night.
Nightmare disorder occurs during (non-REM/REM) sleep.
(REM/non-REM) suppressors, such as antidepressants and alpha antagonists (prazosin), are often used in the treatment of nightmare disorders.
Recurrent episodes of outward appearance of intense fear and signs of autonomic arousal, such as tachycardia, rapid breathing, dilated pupils, and sweating, are hallmarks of the condition known as ____________________.
Sleep Terror Disorder (Night Terrors)
Sleep terror disorder typically occurs in the (first third/middle third/second half) of the night.
Sleep terror disorder occurs during (REM/non-REM) sleep.
(T/F) Patients experiencing night terrors are inconsolable and have no recall of their dreams. The terrors abruptly terminate into a deep sleep.
Treatment for night terrors is accomplished through methods that decrease (REM/non-REM) sleep, such as naps and benzodiazepines.
________________ is marked by repeated episodes of rising from bed during sleep and walking about. These patients have blank, staring faces and are relatively unresponsive to others. They can only be awakened through great difficulty and effort, after which they typically have no recollection of the event.
Sleepwalking Disorder (Somnambulism)
Somnambulism occurs in the (first third/middle third/second half) of the night during (REM/non-REM) sleep.
First third during non-REM
Somnambulism is more common in (males/females).
Bedwetting, or enuresis, is considered abnormal in children over the age of __ years.
A(n) ______________, or bedwetting alarm, is the best first-line treatment for enuresis.
___________ and __________ are also used as second line treatments for enuresis.
Imipramine and vasopressin
Loss of atonia during REM sleep resulting in motor activity usually of a violent nature is common in _________________ disorders.
REM Behavior disorders
REM behavior disorders most often occur in the (first third/middle third/second half) of the night.
What medications can precipitate REM behavior disorders?
SSRIs or SSNRIs
What are the waves shown in the following stages of sleep:
- NREM 1
- NREM 2
- NREM 3
- NREM 1 - Theta waves
- NREM 2 - Sleep spindles and K complexes
- NREM 3 - Delta waves (SWS)
What is the main mechanism that "tells us we are sleepy" in the homeostatic system (Process S - Sleep Load)?
- Caffeine is an Adenosine receptor anatagonist
What genetic linkages could be linked to Narcolepsy?