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Flashcards in Vascularpathology Deck (44)
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1

___________ is a decrease or lack of oxygen. There may or may not be a lack of blood circulation.

Hypoxia/anoxia

2

__________ is a lack of circulation and perfusion. Always leads to hypoxia.

Ischemia

3

__________ is an obstruction of blood flow, leading to death of tissue.

Infarction

4

The most sensitive areas of the brain to ischemic neurons (red neurons) are the _________________ and _________________.

Sommer's sector of hippocampus

Purkinje cells of the cerebellum

5

(T/F) Laminar necrosis occurs at border-zone areas. These watershed areas are the first to lose perfusion in case of ischemia, and as such are the first to undergo necrosis.

True.

6

A(n) ___________________ occurs when occlusion of an artery is incomplete and there is recirculation of blood.

Hemorrhagic infarction

7

Atherosclerosis and thrombosis most often result in (hemorrhagic infarction/ischemic infarction).

Ischemic infarction

8

Emboli, vasospasms, extrinsic compression, and reperfusion most often result in (hemorrhagic infarction/ischemic infarction).

Hemorrhagic infarction

9

What is shown in the following cross section?

Cross section of atherosclerotic vessel.

10

What happens to neurons undergoing hypoxia or ischemia for less than 24 hours?

They are red neurons (ischemic neurons).

  • Eosinophilic neuronal necrosis
  • Acute neuronal necrosis

11

Tissue undergoing hypoxia or ischemia for more than 24 hours is considered _______________.

Infarcted. The tissue has most likely died.

12

Infiltration into dead tissue by neutrophils usually occurs in __-__ days following brain infarction.

2 - 7 days

13

Neutrophils that have entered infarcted tissue are gradually replaced by macrophages over the course of __-__ weeks.

2-3 weeks

14

_____________ remove dead tissue following a brain infarct.

Macrophages

15

(T/F) Gliosis following a brain infarction begins and finishes immediately following tissue death.

False. Gliosis occurs gradually over the course of inflammation, neutrophil invasion, and macrophage removal of dead tissue.

16

Macrophages subside and a cavity is formed, resulting in a cystic space. This process usually occurs around __-__ weeks following a brain infarct.

6-8 weeks

17

What is shown in the following picture?

Red neurons.

18

Which area in the following picture is infarcted? Which is not?

Left - Infarcted

Right - Not infarcted

19

Epidural and subdural hemorrhages are most often caused by (trauma/vascular pathology/both).

Trauma

20

Intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages are most often caused by (trauma/vascular pathology/both).

Both

21

The most common cause for an intracerebral hemorrhage is _____________.

Hypertension

22

The most common two causes for subarachnoid hemorrhages are __________________ and ___________________.

Berry aneurysms and vascular malformations

23

The most common two causes for cerebral hemorrhages are _________________ and ____________________.

Hypertension and vascular malformations

24

How does a hemorrhagic infarction compare to a hemorrhage?

Hemorrhagic infarction

  • Infarction is primary.
  • Hemorrhage occurs in infarcted tissue.
  • No displacement of brain tissue.

Hemorrhage

  • Rupture of artery causes primary hemorrhage.
  • No antecedent infarction.
  • Blood displaces and damages brain tissue causing hematoma.

25

What two vascular malformations typically cause hemorrhage?

  • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
  • Cavernous hemangioma

26

Abnormally thick arteries or veins with no intervening capillary channels that often cause hemorrhage are referred to as __________________.

Arteriovenous malformations

27

Dilated veins with intercommunications between them, but no intervening brain tissue is characteristic of a(n) ______________________. These formations most often result in hemorrhage.

Cavernous hemangioma

28

The localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel is known as a(n) ______________.

Aneurysm

29

(Saccular/Atherosclerotic/Mycotic/Dissecting) aneurysms typically involve the entire circumference of the vessel.

Atherosclerotic

30

(Saccular/Atherosclerotic/Mycotic/Dissecting) aneurysms result from infections and septic emboli.

Mycotic