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Flashcards in Vascularpathology Deck (44):
1

___________ is a decrease or lack of oxygen. There may or may not be a lack of blood circulation.

Hypoxia/anoxia

2

__________ is a lack of circulation and perfusion. Always leads to hypoxia.

Ischemia

3

__________ is an obstruction of blood flow, leading to death of tissue.

Infarction

4

The most sensitive areas of the brain to ischemic neurons (red neurons) are the _________________ and _________________.

Sommer's sector of hippocampus

Purkinje cells of the cerebellum

5

(T/F) Laminar necrosis occurs at border-zone areas. These watershed areas are the first to lose perfusion in case of ischemia, and as such are the first to undergo necrosis.

True.

6

A(n) ___________________ occurs when occlusion of an artery is incomplete and there is recirculation of blood.

Hemorrhagic infarction

7

Atherosclerosis and thrombosis most often result in (hemorrhagic infarction/ischemic infarction).

Ischemic infarction

8

Emboli, vasospasms, extrinsic compression, and reperfusion most often result in (hemorrhagic infarction/ischemic infarction).

Hemorrhagic infarction

9

What is shown in the following cross section?

Q image thumb

Cross section of atherosclerotic vessel.

A image thumb
10

What happens to neurons undergoing hypoxia or ischemia for less than 24 hours?

They are red neurons (ischemic neurons).

  • Eosinophilic neuronal necrosis
  • Acute neuronal necrosis

11

Tissue undergoing hypoxia or ischemia for more than 24 hours is considered _______________.

Infarcted. The tissue has most likely died.

12

Infiltration into dead tissue by neutrophils usually occurs in __-__ days following brain infarction.

2 - 7 days

13

Neutrophils that have entered infarcted tissue are gradually replaced by macrophages over the course of __-__ weeks.

2-3 weeks

14

_____________ remove dead tissue following a brain infarct.

Macrophages

15

(T/F) Gliosis following a brain infarction begins and finishes immediately following tissue death.

False. Gliosis occurs gradually over the course of inflammation, neutrophil invasion, and macrophage removal of dead tissue.

16

Macrophages subside and a cavity is formed, resulting in a cystic space. This process usually occurs around __-__ weeks following a brain infarct.

6-8 weeks

17

What is shown in the following picture?

Q image thumb

Red neurons.

A image thumb
18

Which area in the following picture is infarcted? Which is not?

Q image thumb

Left - Infarcted

Right - Not infarcted

A image thumb
19

Epidural and subdural hemorrhages are most often caused by (trauma/vascular pathology/both).

Trauma

20

Intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages are most often caused by (trauma/vascular pathology/both).

Both

21

The most common cause for an intracerebral hemorrhage is _____________.

Hypertension

22

The most common two causes for subarachnoid hemorrhages are __________________ and ___________________.

Berry aneurysms and vascular malformations

23

The most common two causes for cerebral hemorrhages are _________________ and ____________________.

Hypertension and vascular malformations

24

How does a hemorrhagic infarction compare to a hemorrhage?

Hemorrhagic infarction

  • Infarction is primary.
  • Hemorrhage occurs in infarcted tissue.
  • No displacement of brain tissue.

Hemorrhage

  • Rupture of artery causes primary hemorrhage.
  • No antecedent infarction.
  • Blood displaces and damages brain tissue causing hematoma.

25

What two vascular malformations typically cause hemorrhage?

  • Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)
  • Cavernous hemangioma

26

Abnormally thick arteries or veins with no intervening capillary channels that often cause hemorrhage are referred to as __________________.

Arteriovenous malformations

27

Dilated veins with intercommunications between them, but no intervening brain tissue is characteristic of a(n) ______________________. These formations most often result in hemorrhage.

Cavernous hemangioma

28

The localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel is known as a(n) ______________.

Aneurysm

29

(Saccular/Atherosclerotic/Mycotic/Dissecting) aneurysms typically involve the entire circumference of the vessel.

Atherosclerotic

30

(Saccular/Atherosclerotic/Mycotic/Dissecting) aneurysms result from infections and septic emboli.

Mycotic

31

(Saccular/Atherosclerotic/Mycotic/Dissecting) aneurysms are spherical, often involving a portion of the vessel wall. They typically only occur in intracranial arteries and are the most common cause of non-traumatic bleeding in the subarachnoid space.

Saccular (berry)

32

(Saccular/Atherosclerotic/Mycotic/Dissecting) aneurysms result from a tear in the vessel that forces blood between layers of the vessel wall.

Dissecting

33

What type of aneurysm is shown in the photo?

Q image thumb

Saccular (Berry) Aneurysm

34

What are the two most common types of cerebral edema?

  • Vasogenic
  • Cytotoxic

35

Fluid in the extracellular cerebral space caused by a disruption of the blood-brain barrier in an infarction, hemorrhage, tumor, or trauma is referred to as (cytotoxic/vasogenic) edema.

Vasogenic

36

Fluid in the intracellular cerebral compartment caused by a cellular membrane injury due to hypoxia or a metabolic event such as ketoacidosis is referred to as (cytotoxic/vasogenic) edema.

Cytotoxic

37

Herniation of part of the cerebrum underneath the falx cerebri (such as the frontal lobe or cingulate gyrus) is referred to as a(n) (uncinate or transtentorial/subfalcine/tonsillar/fungating) hernia.

Subfalcine

38

A hernia involving the tonsils of the cerebellum is referred to as a(n) (uncinate or transtentorial/subfalcine/tonsillar/fungating) hernia.

Tonsillar

39

A hernia involving the uncus is referred to as a(n) (uncinate or transtentorial/subfalcine/tonsillar/fungating) hernia.

Uncinate or transtentorial

40

A transcalvarial hernia is referred to as a(n) (uncinate or transtenorial/subfalcine/tonsillar/fungating) hernia.

Fungating

41

What types of herniation are shown in the following image?

Q image thumb

Cingulate and uncal hernations.

A image thumb
42

Herniation of the ___________ is problematic because it may compress the oculomotor nerve and posterior cerebral artery. This causes ipsilateral unilateral pupillary dilation and hemorrhagic infarction in the occipital lobe.

Uncus

43

Compression of the brainstem against the tentorium opposite a herniated uncus is referred to as __________________.

Kernohan's notch

Transtentorial Herniation

44

Secondary hemorrhage caused by tearing of the perforating brainstem arteries following compression of the brainstem (such as Kernohan's notch) is referred to as ______________ hemorrhage.

Duret's hemorrhage

Transtentorial Herniation