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Flashcards in Diabetic emergencies Deck (18):
1

What is diabetic ketoacidosis

disordered metabolic state of absolute or relative insulin deficiency AND an increase in the other hormones like glucagon, adrenaline

2

What 3 things determine a diagnosis of DKA?

Ketonaemia >3mmol, blood glucose > 11mmol, and bicarbonate

3

What kind of things can cause DKA?

alcohol/ drug use, infection, non compliance with treatment, newly diagnosed diabetes

4

What kind of signs/ symptoms are present in DKA?

thirst, polyuria, dehydration, vomiting, kussmauls breathing, abode pain and tenderness, flushing, sepsis/ gastroenteritis

5

What would the glucose, potassium, sodium, CK and lactate levels be in DKA?

Gl: high, K: high Na: low, CK: high, lactate: high

6

what are some major complications of DKA?

hypokalaemia, aspiration pneumonia, ARDS, cerebral oedema

7

How would you treat DKA?

replace fluids, insulin, phosphate, potassium, LMWH

8

What is the usual treatment for hyperglycaemic hyperosmotic syndrome?

diet alone

9

who is affected in HHS?

older people

10

name 4 risk associations with HHS?

MI/STROKE, sepsis and glucocorticoids and thiazides

11

What would be the typical biochemistry of HHS?

higher glucose, renal impairment, sodium raised, increase in osmolality,

12

which type of diabetes is more commonly associated with HHS?

type 2

13

where does lactate originate from?

skeletal muscles, red cells, brain and renal medulla

14

what is the normal ion gap?

10-18mmol

15

What is type A lactic acidosis

associated with tissue hypoxaemia,

16

what does type B lactic acidosis occur?

liver disease, diabetes association,

17

in lactic acidosis, what features would you find?

hyperventilation, confusion, absence of katonaemia, raised phosphate, reduced anion gap

18

how do you treat lactic acidosis

fluid, antibiotics,