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Flashcards in Calcium disorders Deck (37):
1

what things help regulate the calcium homeostasis in the body?

diet, gut absorption, PTH, Vit D,

2

what can PTH disorders lead toq

hyper/hypoparathyroidism, malignant hypercalcaemia

3

What affect does Vit D have on the body

diet absorption, renal, liver disease, UVB exposure, drugs

4

how is calcium homeostasis controlled?

through negative feedback

5

what is vitamin D made from initially

dehydro cholesterol

6

what are the acute symptoms of hypercalcaemia

thirst, dehydration, confusion, polyuria

7

what are some chronic symptoms of hypercalcaemia

myopathy, osteopaenia, fractures, depression, hypertension, abdo pain

8

what would be the main test you would do for hypercalacemia

PTH

9

if both the albumin and urea are raised, what is the result?

dehydration

10

if the albumin is normal/ low and PTH is suppressed, phosphate high, what would be the diagnosis

bone pathology

11

if the PTH was normal/high, phosphate low/ normal, increased urine Ca, the diagnosis would be

Primary/ tertiary hyperparathyroidism

12

IF the urine Ca is low, what would the diagnosis be

FHH

13

what are the main causes of hypercalcaemia

primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, drugs, granulomatous disease, tertiary hyperparathyroidism

14

how would you diagnose hyperparathyroidism

rasised serum Ca, rasied PTH, increased urine calcium excretion

15

how would you diagnose a hypercalcaemia malignancy

raised calcium, ALP, XRAY, CT, MRI, Isotope bone scan

16

how would you treat hypercalcaemia acutely

rehydrate with fluids, loop diuretics Bisphosphonates lowers Ca over 2-3d

17

what is the management of primary hyperparathyroidism

surgery or nothing

18

when would you have surgery

end organ damage- osteoporosis, renal stones, gastric ulcers, bone disease, v v v high calcium,

19

what s significant about secondary hyperparathyroidism

Ca is low, but PTH is raised, wherasfor 1 and 3 hyperparathyroidism, both Ca and PTH is raised.

20

what is hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia

low calcium in the urine

21

how can one get hypocalciureic hypercalcaemia

familial and benign/ assymptomatic

22

what are some symptoms of hypocalcaemia

paraesthesia, muscle cramps, muscle weakness, fatigue, fits, bronchospasm, chvsteks sign and trousseau sign

23

what are some causes of hypocalcaemia

hypoparathyroidism, vit D deficiency, chronic renal failure

24

what medication should be given in an emergency hypocalcaemia

IV calcium gluconate- 10ml, 10% 10 mins

25

Why would you get hypoparathyroidism

congenital, destruction, autoimmune, hypomagnesaemia, idiopathic

26

what is the long term treatment for hypocalcaemia

calcium supplement, Vit D tablets

27

in hypomagnesaemia, is calcium high or low

high

28

Is PTH release inhibited or stimulated

inhibited

29

what are some causes of hypomagnesaemia

alcohol, drugs, GI, pancreatitis, malabsorption

30

what is pseudohypoparathyroidism

low calcium, PTH resistance, PTH levels high, genetic defect,

31

what are some signs of pseudohypoparathyroidism

obese, learning difficulty, bone abnormalities, branchdactyly

32

what is different about pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism

instead of the calcium being low, the calcium is normal in this case

33

what is the cause of rickets and osteomalacia

vitamin D deficiency

34

what conditions can predispose you to rickets/ osteomalacia

chronic renal disease, GI malabsorption, lack of sunlight, drugs

35

what is osteomalacia clinically

low calcium, muscle wasting- prox myopathy, dental defects, bone fractures/ tenderness, limb deformity

36

what type of hyperparathyroidism can chronic renal disease cause

secondary

37

what is the chronic treatment for osteomalacaia

vit D tablets