Flashcards in Diagnostic Test Characteristics Deck (41):
Indicated by fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash (erythema migrans)
Caused by the bacterium Borrelia Burgdorferi
-transmitted through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks
A serological test for lyme disease has a:
1.) Sensitivity of
2.) Specificity of
A form of testing based on test results that predicts the disease status
To develop a diagnostic test, you want to compare it to a current
To develop a diagnostic test, you want to define the test results, meaning what is the
Accuracy, and what is a misclassification
What two aspects make up conditional probability?
The probability of testing positive, given that a patient has a disease
The probability of testing negative, given that a patient does not have the disease
Diagnostic testing requires which three things?
Sensitivity, specificity, and prevalence
The proportion of a group of people possessing a clinical condition or outcome at a given point in time
Can be thought of as the probability of disease before the test result is known
What are two other names for prevalence
Prior probability and pretest probability
The probability of having a disease given a positive test result
Positive Predictive value ("Predictive value positive)
The probability of not having a disease, given a negative test result
Negative Predictive value of a test ("predictive value negative")
A diagnostic test's accuracy is determined by comparing it to a
Comes from the pretest probability and likelihood ratio and is used to derive the posttest probability
Summarize both sensitivity and specificity into one number
How do we find the positive likelihood ratio (LR+)?
LR+ = sensitivity / (1-specificity)
How do we find the negative likelihood ratio (LR-)?
LR- = (1-sensitivity) / Specificity
Defined as the probability of that test result in people with the disease divided by the probability of the result in people without the disease
Express how many times more (or less) likely a test result is to be found in diseased, compared with non-diseased, people
To simplify likelihood ratios: values between 0 and 1
Decrease the probability of disease
To simplify likelihood ratios: values greater than 1
Increase the probability of disease
The probability of disease is not affected if the likelihood ratio is
How do we use the likelihood ratio to calculate the post test odds?
Posttest odds = Pretest odds (prevalence) x LR
What are odds?
Odds = probability of event / (1- probability of event)
What is probability?
Probability = Odds / (1 + odds)
What are the factors on predictive values?
Prevalence, specificity, sensitivity
The probability of disease, given the results of a test is called the
The more sensitive a test is, the better will be it's
Negative Predictive Value
The more specific the test is, the better will be its
Assesses how confident the clinician can be that a negative test rules out the disease being sought
Assesses how confident the clinician can be that a positive test confirms the diagnosis
Positive results, even for a very specific test, when applied to patients with a low likelihood of having the disease will largely be
The ratio of the proportion of diseased people with a positive test result to the proportion of nondiseased people with a positive result
The ratio of the proportion of diseased people with a negative test result divided by the proportion of non-diseased people with a negative test result
Will rarely miss people with the disease
Will rarely misclassify people as having the disease when they do not
A highly sensitive test is most helpful to the clinician when the test result is