Introduction to Cell structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to Cell structure Deck (40):
1

The external boundary that serves as a barrier, controlling entry and exit of substances

-The site of communication between cells and their environments

Plasma membrane (PM)

2

Segregates the internal structure of the nucleus from the cytoplasm

Nuclear Envelope

3

Cells that secrete peptides and proteins have extensive

-A membranse structure to which ribosomes are attatched

Rough ER's

4

What are the two main intracellular compartments?

Nucleus and Cytoplasm

5

The nucleus has a subdomain known as the

Nucleolus

6

The cytoplasm has which two sub domains?

1.) Membrane bound organelles
2.) Cytosol

7

Synthesize and secrete immunoglobulins and have extensive rough endoplasmic reticulums

Plasma Cells

8

Cytoplasm outside of the organelles, containing soluble enzymes, inclusions (glycogen, granules, and lipids), cytoskeletal elements, and free polysomes

Cytosol

9

mRNA + ribosomes

Polysomes

10

What are the three major structural areas of the nucleus?

Nuclear Envelope, Nuclear Pore, and Nuclear Lamina

11

Double membrane that segregates nuclear contents

Nuclear envelope

12

The outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is continuous with the ER and has

Ribosomes

13

The nuclear envelope encloses

Chromatin and nucleoplasm

14

Contains the genetic material of the cell

Chromatin

15

Contains soluble nucleotides and proteins

Nucleoplasm

16

What are the two types of Chromatin?

Euchromtin and heterchromatin

17

Actively transcribed DNA

Euchromatin

18

Inactive DNA that is highly condensed and usually near the periphery of the nucleus

Heterochromatin

19

The site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and the site of the assembly of ribosomal subunits

Nucleolus

20

The ribosomal subunits consist of rRNA and several proteins that were first synthesized in the cytosol and then transported to the

Nucleus

21

A structure composed of pecific intermediate filament proteins (the LAMINS)

Nuclear lamina

22

Form a dense felt-like area under the nuclear membrane, which helps maintain nuclear structure

Lamins

23

Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the nuclear lamins regulate the stability of the nuclear envelope during

Mitosis

24

Results in the break down of the nuclear envelope during prophase of mitosis

Phosphorylation of lamin B

25

Large complex structures (30 different proteins) organized with octogonal symmetry that transport macro- and micromolecular structures in and out of the nucleus

Nuclear Pores

26

Leave the nucleus through the nuclear pore

Molecules involved in protein synthesis (mRNA, tRNA, ribonucleoproteins)

27

Made in the cytoplasm fro mRNA and enter the nucleus through the nuclear pore

Proteins used in gene regulation (histones, polymerases, etc)

28

Contains the cytoskeleton (which forms the structural framework of the cell), cytoplasmic inclusions, soluble enzymes/ions, and free polysomes

Cytosol

29

What are three special types of proteins contained in the cytosol?

Actin, Tubulin, Intermediate filaments

30

Contain filaments called microfilaments

Actin

31

Contain structures called microtubules

Tubulin

32

Similar to nuclear lamins

Intermediate filaments

33

Metabolic products such as lipids (in the form of lipid droplets) and glycogen (polymer of glucose), are not enclosed by a cell membrane and are stored in the cytosol as

"inclusions"

34

The cytosol contains numerous soluble proteins and enzymes involved in

Intermediate Metabolism

35

Particles composed of rRNA and Multiple proteins that are assembled as large and small subunits

Ribosomes

36

The large and small subunits of ribosomes combine with mRNA to promote

Translation

37

Ribosomes attached to the ER will produce proteins that enter the

Secretory pathway

38

In the cytosol, free polysomes synthesize specific proteins that are used

Within the cell (not secreted)

39

Importantly, nuclear proteins that regulate replication and gene expression, such as DNA polymerases and transcription factors, as well as proteins of the ribosome itself, are made on

Free ribosomes

40

Ribosomal proteins made in the cytoplasm associate with rRNA produced in the

Nucleolus

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