Lecture NC's for Test 2 Week 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture NC's for Test 2 Week 2 Deck (117):
1

Mostly function by dimerizing in the presence of ligand and activating intracellular kinase activity

-Inactive as monomers

Protein kinase receptors

2

An example of desensitization of receptors is seen in the

β-adrenergic receptor

3

What are the 4 classes of intermediate filaments?

1.) Nuclear
2.) Vimentin-like (Desmin = Muscle, Vimentin = mesenchymal)
3.) Epithelial
4.) Axonal

4

What is the largest of the motor proteins?

Dynein

5

Regulate myosin and can be phosphorylated

-often comprised of calmodulin

Light chains of Myosin

6

Dynein binds microtubules through the

Stalk

7

The motor domain of dynein does NOT contain the

Microtubule binding domain

8

Defect in recognizing signal of peroxisomal proteins

Zellweger syndrome

9

We never find glycosylated molecules in the

Cytoplasm

10

Glycosylation occurs in the

Lumen of the ER

11

Lysosomal proteins receive their M-6-P tags in the

cis-Golgi

12

Lysosomal proteins bind M-6-P receptor in the

trans-Golgi

13

Clathrin does not directly bind to the membrane receptors. Instead, it binds

Adaptin

14

Keeps enzymes from leaking out into underlying tissue

Tight Junctions

15

Expressed highly in parts of the renal tubules where Ca2+ and Mg2+ resorption takes place

Claudins 16 and 19 (tight junctions)

16

What would you expect from a patient with a mutation in the tight junction proteins claudin 16 and 19?

Serum: Low Ca2+ and Mg2+
Urine: High Ca2+ and Mg2+

17

Cadherin mutations can lead to

Developmental disorders

18

Mutations in connexin 26 lead to

Deafness

19

Mutations in connexin 32 lead to

Peripheral neuropathies

20

Calcium dependent cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) with a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD)

Selectins

21

Major component of the lamina densa

Collagen IV

22

Mostly found in connective tissue where it connects the connective tissue to the lamina densa

Collagen VII

23

Transmembrane collagen that anchors epithelial cells to basal lamina

Collagen XVII

24

Proteoglycan that has a noncovalent interaction with hyaluronic acid

-abundant in cartilage

Aggrecan

25

Proteoglycan with heparin sulfate GAG that is located in the basal lamina and associates with collagen IV

Perlecan

26

Proteoglycan with chondroitin sulfate GAG that is located in fibroblasts and epithelial cells and helps stabilize interaction of FGF with receptor

Syndecan-1

27

Focal adhesions form at the site of bound

Integrin

28

Maintains phosphotidylserine in inner leaflet

Flippase

29

Enzyme that causes phosphotidylserine to flip to outer leaflet

Scrambalase

30

Cleave ICAD to make CPAN, which oligomerizes and becomes active DNAse

Caspases 3 and 7

31

How can we determine a cell is autophagic?

Lots of vacuoles

32

How can we determine that a cell is apoptotic?

Dark color in nucleus from chromatin condensation and DNA laddering

33

How can we determine that a cell is necrotic?

Ruptured membrane

34

The TGF-β signaling pathway peptides bind as dimers to

Serine-Threonine Kinases

35

The FGF signaling pathway peptides bind as monomers to

Tyrosine kinases

36

A mutation in which TGF-β peptide will prevent formation of mesoderm and primitive streak?

Nodal

37

Suppresses mesoderm and nervous system formation and promotes epidermis formation

BMP-4

38

Leads to nodal expression on one side of the embryo and left-right sideness

-promotes noggin and chordin expression to inhibit BMP4

FGF

39

Embryogenesis occurs during weeks

1-3

40

Once a mature follicle is formed, it will discharge an oocyte. This is called

Ovulation

41

Fertilization takes place in the

Ampulla of the uterus

42

The layers surrounding the mature oocyte are mature follicular cells. The follicular cells that are left behind become the

Corpus luteum

43

Maintains the corpus luteum so that is can secrete progesterone and maintain the endometrium

-secreted by trophoblasts

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin

44

Non-cellular glycoprotein layer surrounding oocyte

Zona Pellucida

45

The corona radiata is also known as the

Cumulous Ooforous

46

What is triggered in the oocyte upon fertilization

Meiosis II

47

What are the two ways that the Oocyte blocks polyspermy?

1.) Instant depolarization
2.) Intracellular Ca2+ tsunami that induces cortical reaction

48

Cortical granules line ZP and secrete enzymes that make it impermeable to other sperm

Cortical reaction

49

Have separate amniotic cavities and separate or shared placentas

-Can be same or opposite sex

Dizygotic twins

50

Morulla cells start to secrete

ICM and OCM

51

Occurs by the end of week one, around day 6

Implantation

52

Embryoblast cells differentiate into epiblast (top) and hypoblast (bottom) cells to form the

Bilaminar disc

53

Located above the epiblast layer

Amniotic cavity

54

Located below the hypoblast layer

Yolk sac

55

Insufficient amniotic fluid

Oligohydraminos

56

Too much amniotic fluid

Polyhydraminos

57

When hypoblast cells differentiate and line the trophoblast cells, they convert the blastocyst into the

Yolk sac

58

Allow for blood exchange between yolk sac and embryo

-where early exchange occurs

Vitelline Vessels

59

Germ cells from the yolk sac form the

Gonads

60

Waste moves from the fetus to the placenta through the

Fetal arteries (there are 2)

61

The mesoderm differentiates into the

Paraxial, intermediate, and lateral plate mesoderms

62

Differentiates into somite mesoderm

Paraxial mesoderm

63

Will split into the parietal/somatic layer and the splanchnic/visceral layer

Lateral mesoderm

64

Form when primitive steak fails to completely regress

-can contain multiple tissue types such as skin, teeth, etc

Teratomas

65

An area of mesenchyme that contains signals which instruct the developing limb bud to form along the anterior/posterior axis

Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA)

66

Sonic hedgehog is expressed in the

Notochord

67

In the adult brain, Shh is expressed in the

Hippocampus

68

An extra digit on pinky side of hand or feet

-Results from Gli haploinsufficiency

Postaxial polydactyly

69

Wnt signaling is associated with cancer, especially

Colon Cancer

70

Which transcription factor aids in the fusion of the neural tube?

Snail

71

c-Kit is which type of receptor?

Tyrosine kinase

72

Cardiac outflow track cells require

Crkl

73

Growth factors stabilize p53 through

-sequesters MDM2 (HDM2)

p14ARF

74

Things that inhibit the cell cycle are classified as

Tumor Suppressor genes

75

What are the oncogenes of the mTOR pathway?

PI3K, AKT (PKB), and mTOR

76

What are the tumor suppressor genes of the mTOR pathway?

PTEN and TSC

77

Pail membranes of the eyes

-good indicator of anemia

Conjunctival Pallor

78

Tells us what types of WBCs are in the population

CBC w/ differential

79

Enzyme found in granules of WBCs

Myeloperoxidase

80

How can we differentiate Myeloid cells and Lymphoid cells in a blood smear?

Myeloid cells: much bigger than RBCs

Lymphoid cells: about same size as RBCs

81

In the CML translocation, the Bcr and Abl breakpoints both occur in

-splicing remains in tact and chimeric protein is made

Introns

82

What type of mutation is the balanced translocation leading to the formation of Bcr-Abl

Gain-of-function

83

Bcr-Abl being trapped in the cytoplasm prevents maturation of myeloid cells and results in

Blasts

84

Otd and Otx1 are and example of

Orthologs

85

Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are an example of

Paralogs

86

The vertebral skeleton

Scleretome

87

The skeletal muscle

Myotome

88

Stops the destruction complex from phosphorylating β-catenin

Disheveled

89

Smootheneds natural ligand may be an

Oxysterol

90

p14ARF is transcribed from DNA that also encodes a

CDK inhibitor

91

A trunicated/mutant protein can have which type of affect?

A dominant negative effect

92

Caused by constitutive action of c-RET

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)

93

How can we treat constitutively active mutations in protein kinase?

An inhibitor like Gleevec that binds near ATP binding site and prevents binding

94

Characterized by NC-derived intermediate cells being lost. There is no endolymph, and hair cells die

Waardenburg's Syndrome

95

The main mutation causing Waardenburg's is a mutation in

Micropthalmia transcription factor (MITF)

96

Expressed ion melanocyte populations such as in the iris, the skin, and the cochlear duct (supports hair cells)

MITF

97

Without functional MITF, there will be no endolymph in the ear and the result will be

Deafness

98

Located downstream of c-kit and the steel factor ligand via MAP kinase

MITF

99

The target genes of MITF include

Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) and melanin

100

Waardenburg II clinical syndrome may also be caused by mutations in

Slug

101

Not affected by slug mutation

MITF expression

102

On the outside of the cell and facilitates LDL binding to receptor

-mutations prevent LDL from binding receptor

Apolipoprotein B

103

Bind to receptors on inner nuclear membrane and to chromatin an transcription factors from the nucleoplasm

Lamins

104

If lamina is disrupted, detrimental effects could easily arise from mislocalization of

Proteins/chromatin

105

Intermediate filaments assemble as

Coiled-coil dimers

106

Characterized by a splice defect in lamin A that prevents cleavage of a lipid chain

Progeria

107

Continued farnesylation (lipid attachment) to Lamin A leads to Lamin A incorporation into

Nuclear envelope

108

Atypical-Werner's syndrome could result from altered helicase attachment site in

Lamin A

109

Interact as a complex with clotting factors V and VIII

LMAN and MCDF2

110

Without either LMAN or MCFD2, clotting factors V and VIII can not be incorporated into

COP-II vesicles

111

The myosin Va link to the melanosome is abolished in

-shows neurological problems

Griscelli type I

112

How does a melanosome attach to myosin Va?

Rab27 binds melanosome first, then melanophilin binds, then myosin V

113

The Rab27a link to the melanosome is disrupted in

-shows immune problems

Griscelli II

114

By and large an inhibitor of cell division because smad transcription factors activated by this signalling promote synthesis of CDK inhibitors

TGF-β signaling

115

Are typically both necessary and sufficient to generate specific body parts and/or cell types

Homeobox transcription factors

116

The Philadelphia chromosome (short Ch22) gains genetic material from

-results in the production of abnormal protein

Chromosome 9

117

Another name for hematopoetic stem cells is

CD34 positive cells

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