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Flashcards in Measuring Risk Deck (58):
1

The risk of breast and prostate cancer, heart disease and stroke, Alzheimer disease, autism, and osteoporosis are examples of topics in which the public has developed a strong

Interest

2

Characteristics associated with an increased risk of disease are called

-Some are inherited, some are part of the physical environment, some are part of the social environment

Risk factors

3

Some of the most powerful risk factors are

Behavioral (i.e. smoking, unprotected sex, etc.)

4

The affordable care act mandates that insurance now covers

Preventative services (i.e. screening tests, "routine visits")

5

Means that a person, before becoming ill, has come in contact with or has manifested the factor in question

-can take place at a single point in time or over a period of time (i.e. cigarette smoking)

Risk factor exposure

6

Cigarette smoking, hypertension, sexual promiscuity, and sun exposure are examples of risk factors that have the risk of disease being more likely to occur with

Prolonged exposure

7

A genetic/familial risk factor could be the susceptibility to sickness and

Disease genes

8

Drug or chemical exposures in the home, community, or workplace environment are

Environmental risk factors

9

Radioactivity, Noise, and vibration are all

Physical agents of risk

10

What are two biological agents?

Infectious agents (bacteria, viruses, etc.) and allergens

11

Blood born pathogens, MRSA, and multiple drug resistant tuberculosis are examples of

Infectious agents

12

Stress, Life-threatening trauma, PTSD, and depression are all

Psychosocial agents

13

Repetitive motion jobs or hobbies, heavy lifting, and blast injuries (explosions) are all examples of

Mechanical agents

14

What are four life-style risk factors?

1.) Controlled substances
2.) Uncontrolled substances (i.e. alcohol, cigarettes)
3.) Unsafe sex
4.) Excessive sun exposure

15

Most morbidity or mortality is caused by chronic diseases, for which it is nearly impossible for a physician to use their own experiences to recognize the

Risk factors

16

The time between exposure and event

Latency

17

What causes SARS?

Coronavirus

18

Factors related to education, such as poor nutrition, less prenatal care, and cigarette smoking are remote causes of

Low birth weight

19

It is now clear that about half of lifetime users of tobacco will die because of

Tobacco use

20

Even though we have certain "common" diseases, the incidence of disease is actually

Low

21

The most common cause of cancer deaths in the US and people who smoke are as much as 20 times more likely to develop t than those who do not smoke

Lung cancer

22

Even still, the yearly incidence of lung cancer in people who have smoked heavily for 30 years is

2 to 3 per 1,000

23

The effects of individual risk factors for chronic disease are

Small

24

Just because risk factors predict disease, it does not necessarily mean that they actually cause the disease, meaning the risk factor may be

Confounded to another variable

25

A risk factor that is not a cause of disease is called a

Marker

26

Removing a marker may not remove the

excess risk associated with it

27

People with schizophrenia have higher rates of lung cancer. Schizophrenia itself does not cause lung cancer, however, as much as 80% of population with schizophrenia smoke cigarettes. Therefore, schizophrenia could be thought of as a

Marker for lung cancer

28

What percentage of deaths in asbestos workers is due to asbestos exposure?

45%

29

Multiple risk factors can increase the overall risk, meaning multiple risk factors have a

Multiplicative effect

30

Statistically combining risk factors produces a risk prediction model or a risk prediction

Tool

31

What is a risk prediction model for predicting cardiovascular events?

Framingham Risk score

32

Short term hospital risk prediction tools include the

Patient At Risk of Re-admission Scores (PARR)

33

Prediction tools have also combined diagnostic test results, for example, diagnosing the occurrence of pulmonary embolism (Wells score) or predicting stroke risk in atrial fibrillation, which is the

CHADS score

34

Mapped cholera cases in London and based his inferences on the analysis of spatial patterns

John Snow

35

The probability of an event in a population under study. It's value is the same as that for incidence, and the terms are often used interchangeably

Absolute Risk

36

The best way for individual patients and clinicians to understand how risk factors may affect their lives

Absolute risk

37

Asks the question, what is the incidence of disease in a group initially free of the condition?

Absolute risk

38

Asks the question, what is the additional risk (incidence) of disease following exposure, over and above that experienced by people who are not exposed?

Attributable risk

39

Asks the question, how many times more likely are exposed persons to become diseased, relative to non-exposed persons?

Relative risk (risk ratio)

40

The absolute risk of disease in exposed persons minus the absolute risk in non-exposed persons

Attributable risk

41

The additional incidence of disease related to exposure, taking into account the background incidence of disease from other causes

Attributable risk (risk difference)

42

The ratio of percentage of exposed persons with disease, divided by the percentage of non-exposed persons with the disease

Relative Risk (RR)

43

The risk of a bad outcome is increased when the RR is

Greater than 1

44

The risk of a bad outcome is decreased when the RR is

Less than 1

45

Tells us by how much the treatment reduced the risk of bad outcomes relative to the control group who did not have the treatment

Relative Risk Reduction (RRR)

46

Used when we are talking about exposure/disease incidence studies

Risk Difference

47

Used when we are talking about treatment/disease prevention studies

Risk Reduction

48

The most useful way of presenting research results to help your decision-making

Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) also called risk difference

49

If the ARR for a treatment was 8 percent, then if you treated 100 children

8 would be prevented from bad outcomes

50

What is the number needed to treat (NNT)?

100% / ARR

51

Absolute risk makes the risks or benefits look

Smaller

52

Relative risk makes the risks or benefits look

Bigger

53

A measure of effect size

Relative risk

54

What is the equation for the relative risk reduction (RRR)

1-RR

55

You want to be very careful when dealing with

Risk reduction language

56

What is the most straight forward way to classify risk?

ARR (because you can also convert it to NNT)

57

NNT is best expressed in a

Sentence

58

If you are comparing two treatments, what is the Relative Risk (RR)

Rsk of treatment 1 / Risk of treatment 2

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