Digestive System-Lower Flashcards Preview

Histology Test 3 Brendan > Digestive System-Lower > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System-Lower Deck (63):
1

The hall mark of duodenum is _____ glands in the submucosa, short and broad villi, and an incomplete serosa that is mostly _____

brunner's
adventitia

2

The jejunum consists of _____ finger like vili, well developed ______, and numerous _____ cells in crypts

long
lacteals
paneth

3

The illeum consists of ____ finger like villi, _____ _____, and paneth cells

short
peyer's patches

4

Tissue modifications to increase surface area in the small intestine include: 3 things

plicae circulares
vili
microvilli

5

_____ ______ (also called valves of kerckring) are permanent spiral folds of the mucosa and submucosa, found in the duodenum distal half, jejunum, and proximal half of ileum

plicae circulares

6

Intestinal villi are finger like projections of ______. The villus core consists of lamina propria with plasma cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, mast cells, smooth muscle cells capillaries, and a single _____ (blind-end lymphatic cell)

mucosa
lacteal

7

The ____ of the intestinal villi is the main channel for fat absorption

lacteal

8

Capillary plexi are located in ____ and at the base of the ____ in small intestine

villi
crypts

9

crypts of lieberkuhn are _____ tubular glands that extend from approximately the middle of the villus to the the base of ____ near muscularis mucosae

simple
epithelium

10

Crypts of liberkuhn are composed of 5 types of cells:

goblet cells
columnar cells
enteroendocrine cells
regenerative cells
paneth cells

11

The number of goblet cells ____ from the duodenum to the colon

increases

12

____ cells are found at the base of crypts of liberfkuhn and are unique to the small intestine

paneth

13

Microvilli are found on the ____ surface of the enterocytes. They consist of a core of ____ filaments linked with ____ and ____

apical
actin
fimbrillin, villin

14

Actin microvilli are anchored to the plasma membrane by myosin 1 and _____. At the base of the actin bundle is a rootlet that is crosslinked by an intestine form of ____ to adjacent rootlets

calmodulin
spectrin

15

The _____ ____ in microvilli consists of intermediate filiaments attached to rootlets and spectrin

terminal web

16

Small intestine motility is controlled by the submucosal ____ plexus and the _____ plexus between the inner and outer smooth muscle layers of muscularis externa.

meissner's
myenteric

17

_____ cells are unicellular glands that produce mucinogen. This accumulates in membrane-bound granules in the _____ region. After being released, mucinogen is converted to ____

goblet
apical
mucous

18

____ are surface absorptive cells in the small intestine

enterocytes

19

Enterocytes are tall ____ cells with an apical surface posssing microvilla covered by a _____

columnar
glycocalyx

20

enterocytes have well developed zonulae _____ (tight junctions) and zonula _____ and lateral _____

occulens
adherens
plications

21

Enterocytes divide down in the ____ and migrate up the villus, where they slough off at the villus ___ after 5-6 days

crypts
tip

22

The enzymes ____, ___, and ____ are located in the brush border membrane and digest carbohyrdates

lactase
maltase
sucrase

23

_____ and ____ in microvilli degrade proteins into di and tripeptides and amino acids

enterokinase
aminopeptidase

24

Cytoplasmic ____ degrades di and tripeptides to amino acids

peptidase

25

micellar lipids diffuse into microvilli and become linked to _____ ____ ____ _____. They than are transported to and esterified in the ____ ____ to form TG

fatty acid binding protein
smooth ER

26

Chylomicrons (From dietary TG) fuse with baso-lateral plasma membrane and move into the intracellular space and eventually to _____

lacteals

27

____ cells are a microfold cell located in epithelium over lymnphoid nodules in the ileum.

M

28

The basolateral portion of M-cells may form an _____ pocket, where ______ cells may be located

intraepithelial
B (lymphocytes)

29

___ cells function in antigen uptake, processing, and transport to lymphocytes and macrophages in the lamina propria

M

30

M cells take up antigens, which are processed in _____ containing vesicles and transcytosed to ____ cells

protease
B

31

___ cells are closely associated with lymphoid follicular epithelium in peyer's patches. The cell may extend cell processes across basal lamina and between ___ tight junctions so that a small portion is exposed to the intestinal epithelium

Dendritic
enterocyte

32

Enteroendocrine cells are ____ abundant in the stomach than in the small intestine

more

33

Paneth cells contain large ______ apical secretory granules

eiosonophilic

34

___ cells occur at the bottom of crypts of lieberkuhn and produce lysozyme continuously that cleaves _____ in bacteria cell wall

paneth
peptidoglycan

35

Paneth cells secrete microbicidal ____ (aka peptides called cryptidins) in response to bacteria, antigens, or food related stimulation by _____. These protect regenerative cells in crypts

defensins
Acetylcholine

36

_____ cells are found in the lower half of crypt and contain many mitotic figures. They may differentiate into absorptive or goblet cells

regenerative

37

_____ are found in the lamina propria between villi cores and ____

lacteals
crypts

38

____ glands are located in the submucosa of DUODENUM. They are branched ______ glands

brunner's
tubuloalveolar

39

Brunner's glands produce ____ secretion of neutral and alkaline glycoproteins and bicarbonate ions and GIP to protect intestine from the ____ chyme

alkaline
acidic

40

______ ____ ____ is a polypeptide hormone that enhances epithelial cell division and inhibits gastric HCL production

gastric inhibitory peptide

41

The hallmark of the illeum is the presence of aggregate lymphoid nodules called ____ _____.

peyer's patches

42

The cecum and colon do not contain ____. They are simple columnar epithelium with _____ cells and some enteroendocrine cells

villi
goblet

43

The lamina propria of the cecum and colon consists of lymphoid nodules and closely packed _____. However, there are no _____ cells

crypts
paneth

44

The submucosa of the cecum and colon consists of ____ connective tissue, ____ plexus, but no _____

fibroelastic
meissner's
glands

45

The muscularis externa of the cecum and colon consists of an inner ____ layer and a modified outer ____ layer of smooth muscle. The outer layer is gathered into 3 longitudinal bands that form the _____ ____

circular
longitudinal
teniae coli

46

Teniae coli form sacullations of the wall called ____ ____ when continuously contracted.

haustra coli

47

____ plexus can be found between the muscle layers of the cecum and colon

myenteric (Auerbach's)

48

The appendix is a short ____ arising from the cecum

diverticulum

49

The wall of the appendix consists of large aggregates of _____ ____ in the mucosa and submucosa

lymphopid nodules

50

The appendix serves an important function in the _____ _____

immune system

51

The appendix mucosa consists of ____ ____ epithelium with goblet cells. The lamina propria has lymphoid nodules capped by ____ Cells

simple columnar
M

52

The appendix has no ____ and shallow ____. Other cells include goblet, surface columnar, regenerative, some paneth cells, and many _____ cells deep in the crypts

villi
crypts
enteroendocrine

53

The mucosa between the anal rectal junction changes from ____ in the rectum to mainly _____ proximally to ____ distally in the anus

simple columnar
simple cuboidal/stratified squamous non-keratinized
stratified squamous keratinized

54

____ disorders can lead to malnutrition and result in wasting disease

malabsorptive

55

Gluten enteropathy (nontropical sprue) is due to destuctive effects of certain glutens on intestinal ____, reducing the surface area available for _____

villi
absorption

56

_____ disease is due to the binding of plant lectins to the glycocalyx

celiac's

57

Idiopathic _____ exhibits as stools with a high fat contect due to malabsorption of digested fats.

steatorreha

58

Malabsorption of vitamin ___ can lead to clotting insufficiency

K

59

Malabsorption of vitamin ___ can cause pernicous anemia. It is due to inadequate production of gastric ____ ____ by the parietal celsl

B12
intrinsic factor

60

Colorectal cancer usually arises from ____ ____ and may be aysmptomatic for years

adenomatous polyps

61

Colorectal cancer is treated by colon ____. The highest survival rates are found in patients whose tumors do not extend beyond the _____ ____.

resection
muscularis mucousa

62

_____ disease is caused by mutations in 1 of 4 genes that prevents migration and differentiation of neural crest cells into neurons of the _____ nervous system

hirschsprung's
enteric

63

remember appendicitis,hemorrhoids from anatomy

okay